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1919 June 28, TREATY OF VERSAILLES (France)

World War I ended with an Allied victory. Out of the estimated 1,506,000 Jewish soldiers in all the armies, approximately 170,000 were killed and over 100,000 cited for valor. In Germany alone over 100,000 Jews served with 12,000 killed. England saw 50,000 Jews serving with 10,000 causalities and 1,596 decorated for valor.


1945 May, THE JEWISH BRIGADE

Was transferred to northeast Italy where they come into contact with Jewish survivors. With the end of the war the Brigade played an important part in illegal immigration and the founding of the state as well as the Israel Defense Forces.


1942 August 5, THE GHETTO SPEAKS (USA)

A publication of the Jewish Labor Bund in the United States disclosed information on the murder of 700,000 Jews at Chelmno. Neither the American press - nor for that matter the Jewish press - were prepared to believe the reports.


1948 February 1, THE PALESTINE POST (Eretz Israel)

Was blown up by Abd el-Kader el Husseini with the help of two British soldiers. Six people were killed and twenty people were injured.


1944 October 3 - 6, THE WASHINGTON POST (USA)

A Jewish owned newspaper ran anti- Bergson articles from its front page. It was later forced to retract them. This was the only time that it gave any front page coverage to a "Holocaust" issue.


1764 TRAVELS AMONG JEWS AND GENTILES

Aka Rayz beshraybung was published by Abraham Levi (1702- 1785). The travelogue written in Yiddish highlighted his visits to Poland Italy , Austria, Hungary, and Germany. He described the way of life and population of each city he visited.rn


1616 TSEN0 URENO (Tze'nah u-Re'nah)

A complication of biblical portions, their commentaries, the Megillot, ethics and various legends is published. Written in Yiddish by Jacob ben Isaac Ashkenazi (1550-1928), it was designed for the female reader.Tseno Ureno enjoyed huge popularity and went through 120 editions up to the 20th century.


1288 September 5, TURBATO CORDE

Pope Nicolas IV issued his Bull “Troubled Ropes”, demanding that all Christians who turn to “ the damnable Jewish rite” be treated as heretics. Although this specific bull did not identify itself as specifically referring to “lapsed Christians”, it was understood as such. Later versions would specify “converts who had gone from the error of Jewish blindness to the light of the Christian faith”.


1315 November 28, TALMUD BURNED (Toulouse)

Despite the general improvement of the atmosphere under Louis X, two wagon loads of Jewish books including the Talmud were burnt under the orders of Bernard Gui the French Dominican inquisitor.


C. 1220 - 1291 TANHUM BEN JOSEPH (Ha -)YERUSHALMI (Eretz Israel - Egypt)

Philologist, poet, and biblical exegete. He or his family originated from Jerusalem, although he died in Egypt. Tanhum had an wide-ranging knowledge of philosophy, and medicine as well as a number of languages, including Arabic and Greek. He had an extensive knowledge of previous biblical exegetes and grammarians. His works include Al-Murshid al-Kafi (on Maimonides) Mekomot (Places), and Arugot ha-Besamim (The Herb patch).


1943 December 10, TARASIKA (Romania)

As Soviet troops began to break through German lines, the Germans (and local Romanians) tried to cover up their actions by killing the surviving inmates of the labor camp and destroying the camp itself. This type of action was repeated over and over again as Soviet troops moved toward Germany.


711 July 19, TARIK IBN ZIYAD (Spain)

A Moslem general. He defeated King Roderick, the last of the Visigoth kings, at the Battle of Rio Barbate (Guadalete) near Xeres de la Frontera. The Jews backed him in his battles. After each city was conquered (Cordova, Granada, Malaga), Jews were often given positions of safeguarding Moslem interests. One of his generals, Kaula al Yahudi, had many Jews under his command.


C. 80 TAURIS, CRIMEA

The first concrete evidence of a viable Jewish community (including a synagogue) in the Crimea on the northern black sea.


1912 April 11, Technikum (Technion) (Haifa, Eretz Israel)

Was founded with the help of Paul Nathan of the Hilfsverein der Deutschen Juden ("Relief Organization of German Jews") and Jacob Schiff. The Technikum Institute of Technology, later to be known as the Technion,was struck the following year (see 1913), by both teachers and students when they tried to institute German as the school's language instead of Hebrew. Due to both the strike and the approaching war the school did not actually begin classes until 1924.


1913 TECHNION - ISRAEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ( Haifa, Eretz Israel)

The "Battle of the Languages" was fought as the opening of the Technion, also then known as the Technikum, approached. Although the majority of the governing board voted for German, mass protests were held with major figures, including Ben Yehuda, threatening a boycott if Hebrew wasn't used as the language of instruction. This battle also gave impetus for the establishment of Hebrew as the official language of Eretz Israel in all spheres.


1943 February 18, TEHERAN CHILDREN (Europe - Eretz Israel)

858 Polish children saved from the Holocaust made their way from Europe though Iran and India to arrive in Eretz Israel with the help of the Jewish Agency and were absorbed by Aliyat HaNoar.


1909 April 11, TEL AVIV (Eretz Israel)

The first modern Jewish city, it was founded on the sand dunes north of Jaffa with the building of 60 houses. The actual name "Tel Aviv" was given only the next year (Hill of Spring) and was taken from a Babylonian city (Ezekiel 3:15) and used by Nahum Sokolow as the title for his translation of Herzl's book Altneuland.


1917 March 28, TEL AVIV-JAFFA (Eretz Israel)

As the war front came closer, the Turkish Governor of Jaffa ordered all Jews to leave the city, including Tel Aviv.


1920 March 1, TEL HAI (Eretz Israel)

A Jewish village in the Galilee was attacked by Arabs. Joseph Trumpeldor and seven men under his command were killed in the ensuing battle.


1842 TEMPLE HAR SINAI (USA)

America's first Reform synagogue was established in Baltimore, Maryland.


661 July, TEMPLE MOUNT JERUSALEM

Muawiya I was acclaimed as caliph of the Umayyad dynasty. Muawiya ( 602-680) is credited with building the first mosque on the temple mount. He had a strong attachment to Jerusalem and even considered moving his capital there. Muawiya established good relationships with non Moslems and even encouraged Jews to move to Jerusalem.


1942 November 25, TEMPORARY COMMITTEE (USA)

Later known as the Joint Emergency Committee on European Jewish Affairs, was established by Stephen Wise. It was made up of the American Jewish Committee, American Jewish Congress, Jewish Labor Committee, B'nai B'rith, World Jewish Congress, Synagogue Council of America and Agudat Israel of America. Though often at odds with each other, they managed to contact important non-Jews, asking for their help, and to pressure the press to cover the genocide. They also sponsored a national day of mourning and managed to get the only meeting about the Holocaust between Roosevelt and Jewish leaders during the war.


198 TERTULLIAN

Wrote his "Adversus Iudaeos" (Against the Jews), supposedly portraying an argument between a Jew and Christian. In it ( the first of its kind in Latin), the Christian "proves" that they have displaced Judaism, taking over as the "People of God". Tertullian (c. 155 – c. 240) wrote another book in 221 ("Against Marcion"), which included much of his anti-Judaic ideas. A number of other texts with similar names (Adversus Iudaeos, ), were written by Chrysostom ( see 386) and Pseudo-Gregory of Nyssa ( see 370).


1794 September 17, THADDEUS (TADEUSZ) KOSCIUSZKO (Poland)

Praised the role played by Jews in his abortive revolt against Russia. Singling out Warsaw's Jews he wrote, "(they showed) to the whole world that when it comes to human rights they do not spare their blood". As part of his revolt he granted Joseph Aronowicz and Berek Joselowicz (see 1765) permission to form a Jewish legion. Five hundred men volunteered to a call to arms issued in Yiddish, and fought in Praga, a suburb of Warsaw.


1816 December 30, THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR EVANGELIZING THE JEWS (New York, USA)

Was formed in New York. Its founders included Joseph Boudinot, a former president of the Continental Congress, and John Quincy Adams, then secretary of state. Many other such societies were organized, leading the Jewish community to publish pamphlets and articles against these efforts. The first pamphlet, Israel Vindicated (1820) was published by Abraham Colins.


1863 December, THE SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF CULTURE AMONG THE JEWS OF RUSSIA

Was founded by Baron Joseph Guenzburg. Also known as the OPE, its goal was to help Jews learn the Russian language, secular subjects and culture. There were numerous difficulties including antagonism by Russian bureaucracy, and the reluctance religious community which saw it as a tool for assimilation. During later years there was controversy on the language of instruction in the schools for refugees. The OPE wanted Yiddish, others wanted Russian, and the Zionists wanted Hebrew.


1848 THE VALERO BANK (Jerusalem)

Founded by Jacob Valéro (1813-1874). became the first Hebrew bank in Eretz Israel. The bank provided services for the Ottoman government and served as a mean to transferring funds to the Jewish communities. It closed in 1915. His son Hayyim Aaron Valero (1845-1923) a banker, purchased land in Hebron, Jaffa, and Jerusalem. His lands in Jerusalem included areas near the Damascus gate, today’s neighborhoods of Katamon and Makor Chaim , as well as the land for Bikur Cholim Hospital and the Manchane Yehuda market which used to be known as the Valero Market.


1799 THE "DRY BAPTISM" INITIATIVE

Was proposed by David Friedlander as a compromise to help integrate into Christian society. Friedlander ( 1750-1884) was a successful banker, and considered to be the successor to Moses Mendelssohn. He proposed that Jews join the Lutheran church on a moral and ethical basis, without accepting the belief of Jesus as the messiah.


1940 July 17, THE IRGUN AND LEHI (LECHI) SPLIT (Eretz Israel)

Over disagreements between Abraham (Yair) Stern, and David Raziel . Stern, head of the Irgun's information department, wanted to have a policy independent of Ze'ev (Vladimir) Jabotinsky and the Revisionist party, and was against any cooperation with the British whom he considered more of an enemy then the Arabs. Stern then formed his own organization which he originally called Irgun Zvai Le'umi Be'yisrael - National Military Organization in Israel. (Raziel's organization was called Irgun Zvai Le'umi Be'eretz Yisrael - National Military Organization in Eretz Israel). After Stern was summarily shot by the British, the name was changed to Lohamei Herut Yisrael (Israel Freedom Fighters) or Lehi.


1940 January 24, THE NEW YORK TIMES

In an editorial justified its aversion to reporting stories about atrocities in Poland because: "All we have heard until now have been unofficial accounts of such horrors that we chose to disbelieve them as exaggerated."


1942 March 16, The PALESTINE POST (Eretz Israel)

Printed a small article at the bottom of the page entitled "Warsaw Jews Threatened, Quarter million Jews massacred." Most papers in Eretz Israel refused to print the reports, considering them exaggerated. They also did not wish to "alarm the world."


1939 December 30, THE URANUS

Three river boats with 1,210 Jewish refugees aboard from Vienna and Prague, were stopped on the Danube near Iron Gates gorge and the town of Kladovo on the Romanian-Yugoslavian border. The British government had protested to the Yugoslavian government at the intention of the refugees to get to Eretz-Israel. Two hundred children received travel permits, the rest were turned back.


1694 THE AMSTERDAM HAGGADAH

Was published. The first Haggadah to include copper engravings and a map. The illustrator and cartographer was Abraham ben Jacob Hagar (1393-1714 ) who converted to Judaism. His map of the land of Israel in the Haggadah one of the earliest printed maps of the holy land. Hagar is also said to have made the engravings for Hurowitz's Sheni Luchot Habrit (1565).


1942 May 11, THE BILTMORE PROGRAM (New York, USA)

Was adopted in an emergency meeting (at the Biltmore Hotel in New York) of the Conference of American Zionists. The program, proposed by Ben Gurion and Abba Hillel Silver, totally rejected the British White Paper and called for the establishment of a Jewish state. There was opposition to the proposal by the "non- Zionists" and those who believed in a bi-national state (HaShomer HaTzair).


1348 - 1349 THE BLACK PLAGUE (Europe)

One third of Europe's population died from the Black Death (Bubonic plague). Though many Jews were among the dead, they were accused by local church leaders and tortured to confess that they had poisoned the wells (Chillon) in order to kill Christians. During the next few years - despite the protests of Pope Clement VI - over 60 large and 150 small Jewish communities were destroyed as a direct result of these accusations. These included untold atrocities in cities such as Basel, Cologne, Strasbourg, Worms, Zurich and others. The plague, which originated in China, was spread for the most part by rats which came aboard ships from Asia to European ports. It is estimated that 25 million people perished within three years.


1387 THE CANTERBURY TALES

A collection of stores completed by Geoffrey Chaucer (1342-1400). His "The Prioress's Tale" is a story about a child killed by Jews as encouraged by Satan 'That hath in Jewes' heart his waspe's nest'. The story ends with the mention of another ‘ritual murder libel, Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln, in 1255.


1938 March 9, THE CHANCELLOR OF AUSTRIA

Dr. Kurt von Schuschnigg announced a plebiscite on the question of Austrian independence. His policy was to try and keep Austria semi-independent and to limit the more overt anti-Semitic activities. Hitler furiously demanded his resignation, which, under threat of an armed invasion, arrived two days later. His resignation opened the way to the Anschluss (annexation) of Austria by Germany on March 12.


1356 THE COUNCIL OF ARAGON COMMUNITIES (Spain)

Six years after the 1348 riots, community leaders met in order to formulate a united front in representing their case before the King and Pope. Due to the lack of a consensus on the makeup of the council and the fear of the local communities of losing their independence of action none of the resolutions were enacted.rn rnrn rn


1917 August 23, THE CREATION OF THE JEWISH LEGION OF THE BRITISH ARMY WAS ANNOUNCED

Long championed by Jabotinsky and based on the Zion Mule Corps. The 38th Battalion was commanded by Colonel Henry Patterson. A second battalion (the 39th) commanded by Colonel Eleazar Margolin was also formed. Although at first against the idea, most of the leadership of the Yishuv, including Ben Gurion and Ben Zvi, joined after the Balfour Declaration. Over 2,700 men volunteered for the Legion. Many of them saw action in Transjordan in the fall of 1918.


1808 - 1810 THE DISCIPLES OF THE VILNA GAON (Eretz Israel)

Began to settle in Eretz Israel with the arrival of the first group led his pupil, R. Menachem Mendel of Shklov (d. 1827). In all there were three groups of the Gaon’s students which immigrated to Eretz Israel. Most would initially settle in Safed. This would prevent conflict with the Jerusalem Sephardic community, suspicious that they would be competition for funds raised for Jerusalem inhabitants. It would also avoid confrontation with Arabs who held promissory notes on the Synagogue of Judah HeHasid, and saw all Ashkenazi immigrants an heir to those notes. In addition the Galilee allowed them to purchase land(1811) giving them an opportunity to keep the laws (mitzvot) of the land of Israel. They would form the basis of the Ashkenazi communities of Jerusalem and Safed setting up what was known as the Kollel Perushim. Many of the descendents of the disciples are leading figures in modern Israeli society. The Gaon himself had also set forth with his pupils, but for an unknown reason returned to Vilna where he died soon after.


1943 July 20, THE EMERGENCY CONFERENCE TO SAVE THE JEWISH PEOPLE (USA)

Was attended by 1500 people including senators, labor leaders and media personalities (including newspaper tycoon William Randolf Hearst). Herbert Hoover addressed the conference by radio. Its goals were to discuss and come up with ideas on such varied topics as transportation, military affairs, diplomacy, and church involvement. Peter Bergson was behind organizing the conference. Unfortunately, here too, (see April 1941), due to Bergson's involvement, the World Jewish Congress tried to convince political leaders to stay away from the conference. One positive result of the conference was the gradual involvement of Eleanor Roosevelt in bringing the issue to the public (and political) forefront.


1836 THE FIRST HAKHAM BASHI (Ottoman Empire)

Moshe HaLevy (1872-1908), was appointed by Sultan Mahmud II. The title was taken from the words Hakhan (chacham) meaning sage and Bashi meaning head. Ostensibly he served as the chief Rabbi of the Ottoman Empire or of parts of it. Often the Hakham Bashi himself was not sufficiently learned to also serve as a Halachic authority. In addition to religious responsibilities, he was also in charge of collecting government taxes. Over the next few decades it grew in its importance, as Rabbis of higher stature assumed the office.


1823 THE FIRST AMERICAN JEWISH PERIODICAL (USA)

The Jew was published by S. H. Jackson. His aim was to try to combat Christian missionaries. The first Anglo-Jewish monthly, The Occident, was later established (1843) by the Rabbi, educator and writer Isaac Leeser.


1710 April 5, THE FIRST BLOOD ACCUSATION IN MOLDAVIA ( present day Romania)

Jews of the town of Targu NeamČ› (Naimtz) were accused by a baptized Jew (who actually planted the body in a Jewish courtyard) of having killed a Christian child for "ritual purposes". Five Jews were murdered , others wounded or arrested, and all the Jewish houses sacked. Only after an appeal was made to Prince Nicholas Mavrocordatos, was there an investigation which lead to the freeing of all those imprisoned. rn


1824 January 4, THE FIRST HEBREW CONGREGATION IN THE MID-WEST (Cincinnati, Ohio, USA)

Bene Israel (Sons of Israel) was established at the home of Morris Moses and under the leadership of Joseph Jonas (the first permanent Jewish settler in Ohio). Like other congregationss of its kind in the newly settled territories, they waited until there was a quota of ten men and a Sefer Torah had arrived.


1438 THE FIRST JEWISH GHETTO OR MELLAH WAS CREATED(Fez, Morocco)

By Abd al-Haqq II (1420–1465) the Marinid Sultan. Other ghettos in Marrakesh and Aghmat were constructed during the mid 16th century, and more in 1807, during the rule of Mulay Suleiman (1792-1822). The word mellah is similar to Melach (salt) in Hebrew, and referred to al-Mallah, "the saline area" near Fez (Hims).


1782 May 2, THE FIRST JEWISH SCHOOL (Prague)

was opened in Prague under the guidance of Rabbi Ezekiel Landau (see 1713). Despite his arguments with many of the Maskilim he supported the study of general education including history, grammar, and natural sciences.


1601 October 22, THE FIRST JEWISH WOMAN TO BE PUBLISHED

Devora Ascarelli's book Ma'on ha-Sho'alim "The Abode of the Supplicants" was published. Among other items, it includes a translation of liturgical Hebrew text, a liturgical poem for Yom Kippur, parts of Mikdash Me'atof Moses Rieti, and two of her own poems. The book had been completed in about 1537.


1871 THE FIRST KOSHER COOKBOOK WAS PUBLISHED (USA)

By Esther Levy, called "Jewish Cookery Book".


1896 April 6, THE FIRST MODERN OLYMPIAD OPENS (Athens)

Among the 6 Jews who won medals (8 gold), were two cousins on the German gymnastics team, Alfred and Gustav (Felix) Flatow. Alfred won three gold medals Gustav two. During WWW II they fled to the Netherlands. They were eventually deported to Theresienstadt where they both died, Gustav of starvation..


1547 THE FIRST RITUAL ACCUSATION IN POLAND

Two Jews were accused of kidnapping the son of a local tailor and crucifying him in the town of Rawa. They were burned at the stake and the rest expelled. Over the next 240 years there would be 81 ritual murder accusations and trials in Poland. Thirty-two in the 18th century alone.


1907 THE FREE SYNAGOGUE (New York, USA)

Was founded by Rabbi Stephen Wise as a reaction to the refusal of his congregation in Oregon to allow him free rein on the pulpit. Wise was against set dues for members and believed that the synagogue should also be used to criticize social problems.


1177 October, THE FUERO (Charter) OF TERUEL (Aragon, Spain)

King Alfonso II developed a charter which defined the civic status of Jews. It included a fine for murdering a Jew which was half of what would be charged for a Christian, and which was to paid to the king (since Jews were considered his property). Legal and commercial procedures and even which day you could use the public baths were also defined . This charter was the basis for many other charters in Spain.


1933 April 26, THE GESTAPO (Geheime Staatspolizei) (Germany)

Secret State Police was established. After a short time Hermann Goering was appointed as commander and changed its character to one of a political police force. Within a year Goering agreed to transfer the Gestapo to Heinrich Himmler where it came under the jurisdiction of the SS. The Gestapo was in charge of investigating, along with the S.D. all enemies of the Reich of which the Jews figured prominently. In addition the Gestapo eventually played a major role in planning and the carrying out of the "Final Solution". Although the S.S. for the most part ran the concentration camps, the Gestapo was responsible for rounding up the Jews as well as overseeing the Einsatzgruppen or Special duty groups. In 1936, Reinhard Heydrich became head of the Gestapo and Heinrich Müller, its chief of operations. Müller took over after Heydrich's assassination in 1942. He disappeared near the end of the war and was never caught.


1942 July 22, THE GREAT LIQUIDATION (Warsaw, Poland)

Began. Each day, between 5-6,000 Jews were brought to the Umschlagplatz (literally 'transshipment square')on Stawki street and sent to Treblinka in cattle cars. This continued until September 12, 1942.


1700 - 1721 THE GREAT NORTHERN WAR

Was fought between a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Saxony-Poland (from 1715 also Prussia and Hanover) vs. Sweden. Czar Peter I and King Augustus II eventually defeated Charles II of Sweden and Stanislaus Leszczynski (the Pretender). Jews were forced by both sides to pay heavy taxes, especially in the cities occupied by the Swedes. In Poznan (1704), Jews were forced to defend the city by catching firebombs with their hands.


1944 October 23, THE HUNTING SEASON (Eretz-Israel)

Also known as "the season" in which the Jewish Agency and Haganah leadership began a campaign directed at ending Irgun activities. Eliyahu Golomb demanded that the Irgun take its directives only from the Haganah. Begin replied that while he respected Ben Gurion as the leader of the Yishuv, he rejected both the policy of havlagah (restraint), and the hands-off policy regarding the British. He predicted that the Haganah would eventually come around to the Irgun's way of thinking. The Haganah gave the British direct information, as well as assisting in arresting over 700 Irgun activists, including financial supporters. Several hundred of them were deported to Eritrea, Africa. Although at this stage the decision was made to dismember the Irgun without overt cooperation with the British, this changed dramatically after the assassination of Lord Moyne by the Lehi in November, 1944.


1941 February 6, The IG FARBENINDUSTRIE CHEMICAL CONCERN (Poland)

Decided to build a synthetic rubber plant in Auschwitz. The decision had been between locations in Norway or Auschwitz. They chose the latter due to better tax incentives. Tens of thousands of prisoners died working in the plant. Manpower turnover was 300%. Other major corporations like Siemens and Krupp also used Jewish slave labor to increase profits. The director of the plant, Dr. Walter Durrfeld was reelected to their Board of Governors in 1955 although he was sentenced at Nuremberg to eight years in prison. Otto Ambrose, another director who also ran the poison gas operations, was hired for a major position by J. Peter Grace, a major industrialist and leader of the U.S. Council of the International Chamber of Commerce.


1834 July 15, THE INQUISITION (Spain)

Was finally abolished by the Queen Mother, Maria Christina, after nearly three and one half centuries.


1941 January 21, THE IRON GUARD (Romania)

Revolted against Antonescu and the army. During the short lived revolt, the Iron Guard attacked Jews in Bucharest, killing 120 people. Some of them were hung on meat hooks with a sign placed on them reading "Kosher meat."


1944 September 20, THE JEWISH BRIGADE GROUP (Eretz Israel)

Was formed by the British High Command. After a long battle by Chaim Weizmann and Moshe Sharret, Britain agreed to the establishment of a Jewish unit to fight alongside British troops. Their brigade commander was Ernest Frank Benjamin, a Canadian-born Jew serving in the Royal Engineers. The brigade, also known as "Chi'l" Chativa Yehudit Lohemet (Jewish Fighting Brigade) had its own flag consisting of a gold star of David with a blue and white striped background. In all, over 5000 people enlisted from pre-state Israel, including many who had fled from Europe. Seven hundred of them lost their lives. After the war they formed the basis for the illegal immigration efforts and served as one of the foundations of the IDF. Two chiefs of staff, M. Makleff and H. Laskov, were trained in the brigade.


1915 April 28, THE KUZHI INCIDENT (Lithuania)

A number of German soldiers on a reconnaissance mission entered the small village of Kuzhi for provisions and left. Soon after, the Russians returned and the Germans shelled the village. The Russian high command accused the Jews of giving information to the Russians, and despite the fact that the Kerensky commission found the accusation to be libelous, it was used as an excuse to begin the expulsion of 200,000 Jews most from the Kovno region.


1936 February 14, THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS

Appointed Sir Neil Malcolm to succeed James McDonald as High Commissioner for Refugees. Sir Neil announced that the High Commissioner for Refugees "has nothing to do with the domestic policy of Germany... we deal with persons when they become refugees and not before".


1922 July 22, THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS COUNCIL

Confirmed the Palestine Mandate, citing the Balfour Declaration in the preamble and recognizing "the historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine".


1928 September 22, THE MASSENA BLOOD LIBEL, (upstate New York, USA)

On the eve of the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), Rabbi Berel Brennglass of Massena's Orthodox congregation Adath Israel was called to police headquarters at the suggestion of Mayor W. Gilbert Hawes, to answer charges on ritual murder after a four year old girl disappeared. Although she turned up the next day there remained a strong undercurrent of anti-Semitism in the town.


1529 THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL MUSSAR (ETHICAL) BOOK (Salonika, Greece)

Was published in the sixteenth century. Sefer HaYirah (Book of Fear), was originally composed by Jonah Gerondi the Hasid in the thirteenth century.


1571 THE NETHERLANDS

After the Inquisition was convened that year, it was no longer possible for Jews to live in the Low Countries.


321 December 11, THE RHINE (Germany)

The first evidence of Jews along the Rhine was found in a letter from Emperor Constantine to the prefect of Cologne regarding special taxes. The synagogue originally thought to be dated to the 11th century is now believed by archeologist to have been built 200 years earlier.


115 - 117 THE SECOND ROMAN REBELLION (Roman Empire)

While Trajan (98-117) was busy fighting against the Armenians and Parthians, a revolt which was mainly led by Jews, broke out in Cyprus, Egypt, and Cyrene on the north coast of Africa. In Cyrene, it was led by a Jewish "king" called Lukuas, and in Cyprus by Artemion. Some violence also flared in the Jerusalem area and the Galilee. These wars were known as Polemos Shel Kitos (War of Quietus) named after the Moorish General Lucius Quietus who put down the rebellion. After almost a year of fighting, Trajan's General, Marcius Turbo, succeeded in putting down the rebellion. In all of the cities, there was widespread destruction including the capital of Cyprus, Salamis, much of Alexandria, and most of the Island of Cyrene. In Alexandria, the great synagogue and library were destroyed as well. As a result, Jews were forbidden to live in Cyprus. The rebellion forced Trajan to abandon his campaign to conquer Babylon which continued to provide a refuge for the Jews.


1943 May 10, THE SEWERS OF WARSAW (Poland)

Were used by the remaining fighters to flee to the forests, especially from the bunker at Mila 18. Among them was Tosia (Tova) Altman, who was one of the leaders of the HaShomer HaTzair youth movement which played a vital role in the revolt. Tosia, who had worked as a courier, succeeded in getting to the Aryan side when on May 24, 1943, she was badly burned in an accidental fire. The Gestapo captured her and she died in custody without any medical help. Another dominant figure in the ZOB, Zivia (Celina) Lubtkin, succeeded in getting to the Aryan side and fought in the Polish uprising along with Yitzchak ("Antek") Zuckerman in August 1944. Approximately 75 fighters made it out through the sewers.


1905 April, THE SOCIETY FOR THE RIGHTS OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE ( Vilna, Lithuania)

Maxim Vinaver, a renowned lawyer and one of the founders of the "Constitutional Democratic Party" (Cadets), was elected its chairman. During its two years of existence, the Society organized Jewish participation in the first and second Dumas. They forcefully condemned government complicity in the pogroms of 1905. At their last convention in 1906, there was a heavy debate between Vladimir Jabotinsky (speaking for the Zionists) and Simon Dubnow who were in favor of a Jewish national group in the Duma and Vinaver who was opposed


1920 April 24, THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE AT SAN REMO (Italy)

Assigned the British government the Mandate over Palestine, directing her to establish a national home for the Jewish people as presented in the Balfour Declaration. As part of their mandate the British were instructed to recognize "the historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine and to the grounds for reconstituting their national home in that country." In addition, Britain was to "facilitate Jewish immigration" and "close settlement by Jews on the land." The civil administration was established on July 1, 1920 with Sir Herbert Samuel as the first high commissioner.


1553 September 9, (1 Tishrei 5314 Rosh Hashanah) THE TALMUD (Rome, Italy)

Was confiscated and publicly burned in Rome. This burning was held under the auspices of Cardinal Caraffa, later to be Pope Paul IV, with the backing of Pope Julius III. Caraffa, a rabid counter-Reformationist, chose this day specifically so the Jews would feel the grief more strongly. Talmud burning spread through much of Italy.


1925 February 10, THE TECHNION (The Israel Institute of Technology) (Eretz Israel)

Was opened in Haifa, making it the first institute of higher education to be opened in Eretz Israel. Its first head was Shlomo Kaplansky whose goal was to train engineers to the highest of European standards. By 1952 the Technion was offering Masters and Doctorates. Today the Technion remains Israel's main training center for its high tech industries.


1191 THE THIRD CRUSADE (France)

King Phillip decided to retake Jerusalem from Saladin in the Third Crusade. Debts to the Jews were cancelled for all those taking up the cross. Many Jews - who were now of dubious financial worth - were driven out of France and their property was confiscated.


1948 January 16, THE THIRTY-FIVE (Lamed Hey) (Eretz Israel)

Members of the Haganah tried to reach Gush Etzion to help strengthen its forces. They came across an Arab shepherd and decided to tie him up rather then kill him. He broke loose and soon they found themselves surrounded and greatly outnumbered. There were no survivors and most of the bodies were mutilated.


641 THE TREATY OF ALEXANDRIA (Egypt),

With the Arab conquest of Egypt the Jews were specificity allowed to continue to live in the city. Amr ibn al-‘As(i) the Arab commander estimated that there were approximately 40,000 Jews in the city including many who had fled Byzantine persecutions.


1569 July 1, THE UNION OF LUBLIN (Poland and Lithuania)

Against the backdrop of a fear of Russian intentions under Ivan IV, the Duchy of Lithuania and the kingdom of Poland decided on a practical merging. Although they were now ostensibly "one common country", Lithuania still kept its own title, army, treasury, and code of law. Jews helped found new towns and villages on the border between the two countries. Unfortunately the general status of Jews in Lithuania now fell more in line with those of Poland. The less then total union resulted in Lithuania retaining its own independent Jewish council that was not connected to the Council of the (four) Lands in Poland.


1942 December 19, THE UNITED NATIONS INFORMATION OFFICE (New York, USA)

Published a report confirming that the Nazis had made Poland "One vast center for murdering Jews."


1942 September 15, THE WARSAW DIARY OF ABRAHAM LEWIN

"According to officials of the Jewish community, the number of Jews remaining legally in Warsaw is 34,000, together with those in hiding 50,000. More than 300,000 Jews have been exterminated in the course of seven and a half weeks...Jewish Warsaw now has the air of a cemetery." Lewin (1893-1943) was an educator, who worked with the underground archive " Oneg Shabbat ". His wife Luba was sent to Treblinka in August 1942, and he and his daughter in early 1943. His diary was published after the war as " A cup of tears".


1942 July 30, THE WARSAW DIARY OF CHAIM A KAPLAN

"Their cries and shrieks and wails, which rent the very heavens and filled the whole area with noise, have already stopped. Most of the deportees seem resigned to their fate." Kaplan an educator, kept his diary in Hebrew (which was unusual). He began it in 1933 but broadened its scope at the beginning of the war. He was probably murdered in Treblinka at the beginning of august 1942. In his last entry he wrote ,“If my life ends, what will become of my diary?” It was published after the war asMegilat Yissurin(Scroll of agony). There were many people including some children who kept diaries a number of which survived the war and were published. Naturally the most famous of them is the Diary of Anne Frank ( see 1929).


1655 April 26, THE WEST INDIA COMPANY (North American Colonies)

Refused to accept Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant's request to ban the settling of Jews in New Amsterdam. In their letter, they relate to the "large amounts of capital which the Jews have invested in the shares of this company" therefore "these people (Portuguese Jews) may travel and trade...live and remain there provided the poor shall not become a burden to the company or the community."


1840 (5600) THE YEAR OF REDEMPTION

Judah Alkalai (1798-1878) in his pamphlet Kol Korei asserted that according to the Zohar, the messiah could possibly come around the Jewish year 5600 -1840. This was echoed in Persia by Matthais ben Samuel Mizrahi in his booklet Kol Mevaser. The idea had been brewing over the past few decades, beginning with the conquests of Napoleon. It was fanned by the various uprisings in Europe, the anti-Jewish edicts in Russia, the takeover of the holy land by Muhammad Ali, and cholera epidemic of 1832. The belief also spread to North Africa particularly Tunis and Morocco although some, notably Moshe ben Jacob Turgerman, argued that the concept was a dangerous error. In Europe there was divergences of opinion some (Menashe of Ilia) called it a “ fools belief”, others including Aviezer of Ticktin, a student of the Vilna Gaon, among the Mitnagdim and R. Arye Leib of Shpola among the Hassidim supported the notion.


1915 April 17, THE ZION MULE CORPS

Left for Gallipoli from Egypt. Commanded by Colonel Henry Patterson and organized by Trumpeldor and Jabotinsky, they were a Jewish auxiliary unit of the British Army. The British were not interested in giving them the ability to fight, so they were assigned to provide provisions to the front lines. Although later that same year they were forced to retreat in the disastrous Gallipoli campaign, they performed with distinction and later became the nucleus for the Jewish Legion (1917).


1831 THE “ORGANIC REGULATION (Romania)

Was the first “constitution” in the Danubian provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia (pre- Romania). All Jews were required to register with local authorities, and to indicate their professions in order that “those Jews who [cannot] demonstrate their usefulness [could] be expelled…”


1219 THE ALJAMA (Toledo)

The governing board of the local Jewish communities was first mentioned. Since the population was taxed per community, the Aljama was set up to organized individual taxes as well as those on goods and services within the Jewish community. Eventually they were given wide ranging authority which included; the election of judges and court Rabbis, the establishment of schools, and management of communal property. There was even a committee for Berurei Aveirot which was empowered to enforce moral behavior. The Aljama also served as the intermediary between the community and the crown. Often they were headed by a just few families, which led to tension, resentment, and strife within the community, especially in the later years.


1934 July 4, THEODOR EICKE (Germany)

The first commandant of Dachau was appointed the Inspectorate of Concentration Camps. Himmler bestowed this reward to express his thanks to Eicke for personally murdering SA chief of staff Ernst Roehm during the Night of the Long Knives. His Death's Head Units (Totenkopfverbande), a special unit from the SS, became the guards for the camps. Eicke held the position until the war when he moved to the field. He was killed in Russia.


1921 THEODOR FRITSCH (Germany) (1852-1933)

"The Nestor (The elder statesman) of German anti-Semitism", he produced his own version of "Protocols" which he claimed was translated from Hebrew. The first publication of his Hammer Publishing House was Antisemiten-Katechismus - a catalogue of Jewish misdeeds.Fritsch's who was a fervent believer in the supremacy of the Aryan race, tried (unsuccessfully at the time) to unite all the anti-Semitic political parties in Germany.


1887 THEODOR FRITSCH (1852-1933) (Germany)

Founded the Hammer Publishing House, which specialized in anti-Semitic publications. Fritsch, one of the mentors of the Nazi movement, worked to repeal the emancipation law and later became a member of the Nazi Reichstag.


1880 THEODOR MOMMSEN (1817-1903) (Germany)

Signed a declaration of German notables against anti-Semitism. A German scholar and historian, Mommsen was one of the few German Christian intellectuals to speak out against the new wave of anti-Semitism.


1860 May, - 1904 THEODORE HERZL (Hungary-Austria-France)

Founder of political Zionism. Born in Budapest, his education was German with little Jewish influence. He became a correspondent and later editor of the Neue Freie Presse in Vienna. For a while he toyed with the idea of converting and felt that mass conversion might solve the problem of anti-Semitism. He was in Paris during the Dreyfus trial, which inspired his idea of a Jewish national homeland. He had never read Hess or Pinsker, but developed the idea of Zionism entirely on his own. Herzl wrote "The Jewish State" in three weeks and then launched his Zionist program. He served as the physical and spiritual head of the World Zionist Organization until his death soon after the Uganda scheme failed to win support. During his life, he met with as many heads of state as possible in order to win support for a national homeland.


1888 - 1969 THEODORE REIK (USA)

Psychoanalyst and disciple of Freud. Reik is credited with spreading the popularity of psychoanalyses in the USA and founded the National Psychological Association for Psychoanalysis. He wrote over 50 books on everything from his psychoanalytic theories in Listening with the Third Ear and Masochism and the Modern man to Pagan Rites in Judaism and Jewish Wit which analyses Jewish Humor.


500 THEODORIC (Italy)

King of the Ostrogoths (an Aryan tribe). After conquering Italy (489) he issued an edict confirming protection for the Jews and safeguarding their privileges/charters, which included the right to determine civil disputes and freedom of worship. He also protected their synagogues and persons against incitement by the Church.


625 THEODOSIUS (Eretz Israel)

Commander of the returning Byzantinian army. He promised amnesty to Jews who joined the Persians. He too was greeted by Benjamin of Tiberias.


429 THEODOSIUS II (Emperor of the Eastern (Byzantine) Roman Empire)

Ordered that all funds raised by Jews to support schools be turned over to his treasury. (They are still known as the patriarchal funds.)


1941 November 24, THERESIENSTADT, (Czechoslovakia)

A ghetto was set up in the old barracks and then in the walled town itself. All the 3,700 local inhabitants were moved out. Although Theresienstadt was set up as a "model settlement," its death rate reached fifty percent in 1942 through starvation and epidemics. During an investigation by the Red Cross in June 1943 the Germans changed the external appearance of the town and deported many so that there would be less overcrowding. All the interviews were carefully orchestrated and immediately after the visit most of those interviewed were deported. In all, 140,937 Jews were sent to Theresienstadt, of whom 33,529 died in the ghetto and 88,196 were deported to death camps. There were 17,247 persons left in the ghetto when it was liberated.


1493 THESSALONIKI (Salonika) GREECE

Twenty thousand former Spanish Jews arrived during that year. The city was to become one of the main centers for Jews fleeing the Iberian peninsula. By the end of the next century, so many Portuguese Jews found residence there, that it influenced the local Ladino dialect .


1517 THESSALONIKI GREECE

Jews make up 54% of the population.


1919 December 18, THIRD ALIYAH (Eretz Israel)

The SS Ruslam reached Jaffa from Odessa with 671 people aboard. The ship was loaded with doctors, artists, and academics and had been called Israel's Mayflower. It arrived during the period of what is known as the third Aliyah, which lasted four years. Approximately 50% of the 35,000 immigrants were from Russia and 35% from Poland. The idealism of the third aliyah helped establish the Kibbutz movement, the Histadrut and the Labor Battalions "Gedudei Avodah". The third Aliyah ended as a major economic crisis developed creating unemployment and emigration.


1795 THIRD AND FINAL PARTITION OF POLAND

Russia, under Catherine II, defeated Kosciusco and swallowed what was left of the Ukraine and Lithuania. She then possessed 900,000 Jews. Prussia received Warsaw and its surrounding area while Galicia was given to Austria.


538 THIRD COUNCIL OF ORLEANS (Gaul)

Prohibited Jews from appearing in the streets during Easter because "their appearance is an insult to Christianity". Childbert (a Merovinian king) approved the measure so as not to offend Christians. Until the reign of Charlemagne (800), France (Gaul) consisted of small principalities ruled by petty kings. The decree of a king was not valid beyond the borders of his kingdom, so if Jews were banished from one kingdom it did not affect the Jews in another kingdom.


1189 September 3, THIRD CRUSADE (England)

Began in England under the patronage of King Richard. England, which had taken no real part in the first two Crusades, decided to sponsor a crusade that was joined by France and Germany. Its goal was to recapture Jerusalem (taken in 1187). However, Frederick Barbarossa was accidentally drowned, Philip II of France gave up, and Richard succeeded only in capturing Acre and Jaffa. The Jews of England were the Crusade's chief victims.


1179 THIRD LATERAN COUNCIL

Viciously attacked the practice of usury (banking or money lending at any interest) and also suspected the Jews of complicity with heretics.


1618 - 1638 THIRTY YEARS WAR (Europe)

Between Catholic and Protestant forces in Europe. The fighting centered around Germany, Austria, France and the Netherlands (Ferdinand II of Spain vs. Christian IV of Denmark). In Vienna, Jews suffered during the occupation of Imperial soldiers. Throughout many towns in Germany and Moravia, the Jewish population was expelled, which resulted in thousands of refugees fleeing to Cracow and other Polish cities. After the war, owing to the general destruction and decline of the local populations, France, Moravia, and Germany encouraged foreigners- including Jews - to settle and help rebuild their economies.


1271 THOMAS AQUINAS AND THE JEWS

Countess Margaret of Flanders had written to Aquinas requesting to understand the Catholic view of the Jewish people . In his response he wrote: “Jews by reason of their fault are sentenced to perpetual servitude” for killing Jesus. “Jews of each sex in all Christian provinces, and all the time, should be distinguished from other people by some clothing.” He also advised that “the Jew should be punished with a greater fine than anyone else in a similar case.” Aquinas is known as the Doctor Angelicus (the Angelic Doctor) of the Catholic Church.


1225 - 1274 THOMAS AQUINAS (Italy)

Catholic priest and theologian. He was recognized as “Doctor of the Church” for his contributions to Catholic theology ( Summa Theologica). While some of Aquinas’ philosophies are similar to that of Maimonides, his attitude reflected that of the Fourth Lateran council accusing Jews of deicide (see 1271).


1615 THOMAS BRIGHTMAN’S BOOK (England)

Shall They Return to Jerusalem Again? , was published posthumously. Brighton (1562-1607), an English clergyman, supported the return of the Jews to the Holy Land'. “There is nothing more certain: the prophets do everywhere confirm it and beat upon it.”


1934 July 2, THRACE POGROMS (European part of Turkey)

Which had begun a few weeks earlier with a boycott of Jewish owned businesses, soon included actual attacks on Jewish property. They occurred after the passing of the Turkish Resettlement Law (which proposed forceful assimilation of non-Turkish minorities), and a recent visit by the inspector general of Thrace, Ibrahim Tali Ongoren. He was quoted as stating publicly “The Jew of Thrace is so morally corrupt and devoid of character … worships gold, and knows no love of the homeland.” Approximately 10,000 Jews fled to Istanbul and other areas, before calm was re-established. No reparations or efforts to restore stolen property were made.


1211 THREE HUNDRED RABBIS (Eretz Israel)

Set sail to Eretz Israel from England and France, many of them compelled by persecutions in both countries. Included among them were Jonathan Cohen of Lunel and Samson ben Abraham of Sens, both leaders of their communities. They succeeded in bringing the Tosafists' method of learning to the Holy Land.


1109 TIBERIAS (Eretz Israel)

Fell to the Crusaders. As a rule, once the military conquest ended the Jewish inhabitants were left alone. The notable exceptions were Haifa and Jerusalem (see 1099).


1743 August 27, TIBERIAS (Eretz Israel)

Suleiman Pasha, governor of Damascus, laid siege to the city. The local Jews, led by Hayyim Abulafia, defended the city for 83 days. At the lifting of the attack and the subsequent death of the Pasha (5 Elul), a holiday was declared.


613 TIBERIAS (Eretz Israel)

Led by the wealthy Benjamin of Tiberias, the Jews gave their assistance to the conquering Persian forces.


941 TIBET

Abu Dulaf, a Moslem traveler, reported visiting a city built of cane with a "large" Jewish population.


1882 April 1, TIZA-ESZLAR (Hungary)

A blood libel began when a servant girl went missing. Although not the slightest evidence was found that Jews were even remotely involved, the young son of the janitor of the synagogue was interrogated - whereby he described full details of the "murder." The Jews were then accused of having the girl kidnapped for ritual murder purposes. Fifteen people were brought to trial despite the protests of Lajos Kossuth (non-Jewish leader of the Hungarian Independence Movement) and the fact that the girl's body was found in the river. A year later all of them were acquitted.


C. 1090 TOBIAH BEN ELIEZER (Kastoria, Greece)

Author of a midrashic commentary Lekach Tov on the Pentateuch and the 5 Megilot. He is the only scholar of note during that period in Byzantium that we are aware of.


1652 - 1729 TOBIAS COHN, (Tuviyah Cohen)(Germany – Eretz –Israel

Physician to five successive sultans, he spoke nine languages. He is also famed for his major work, Ma'aseh Toviyyah ("Work of Tobias") a scientific encyclopedia in 8 parts; (1) theology; (2) astronomy; (3) medicine; (4) hygiene; (5) syphilitic maladies; (6) botany; (7) cosmography; and (8) an essay on the four elements. His third part includes an illustration of the human body comparing it to a house. Five years before his death he moved to Jerusalem.


C. 1220 - 1298 TODROS BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI ABULAFIA (Toledo)

Rabbi, kabbalist and courtier under Alfonzo X, Though coming from a wealthy and well connected family he was known for his modesty. In his sermons (which were printed as Zikaron LeYehudah) he condemned the lack of morality in the community. His other works included Shaar haRazim on Kabbalah and Otsar HaKovod on Talmudic legends.


1247 - C. 1306 TODROS BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI ABULAFIA ( Toledo)

Hebrew poet diplomat and financier . He served both Alfonso X (1221-1284) and his son Sancho IV of Castile (1258-1295). He was arrested by Alfonso (see 1281) but eventually regained his position under his son Sancho. He was a prolific writer of poetry with over 1000 poems in his Gan HaMeshalim veHaHidot (“The Garden of Parables and Riddles”).


1085 TOLEDO (Spain)

Surrendered to Alfonso VI of Castile( 1040-1109) , becoming part of Christian Spain. This was the first important conquest of Moslem Spain known as the Reconquista. His chief counselor was Joseph ben Ferrusel, also known as Cidellus (Little Cid). As his physician and advisor, Joseph was instrumental in helping protect those refugees fleeing Almoravide persecutions. The Jews were invited to Toledo and offered full equality . Many Jews (estimates are as high as 40,000) joined his army wearing yellow and black turbans.


1355 May 7, TOLEDO (Spain)

Henry de Trastamasa, step-brother of Peter the Cruel, invaded Toledo on the pretense of rescuing the Queen Blance from Peter. Twelve hundred Jews were killed. His hatred for his brother, Jews, and his brothers good relationship with Jews, were ostensibly part of his reasons for his attacks against him. Bitter fighting within the Jewish quarter repelled the attack. As a reward for the courage of the Jews and loyalty of his advisor, Samuel ben Meir Halevi (Abulafia), Pedro allowed him to construct a beautiful synagogue (1357) which was later converted into a church under the name of El Tránsito. A few years later despite his service, Abulafia lost favor with the king and he was painfully murdered.(see 1360).


654 February 18, TOLEDO (Spain)

Receswinth, King of the Visigoths, forced Judaizing Christians (converted Jews who still kept Jewish traditions) to swear loyalty to the Church or die. They were forced to spend Jewish and Christian holy days with the clergy, but were not forced to eat pork.


712 March, TOLEDO (Spain)

The Jewish inhabitants opened the gates for the Moslem invaders under Tarik ibn Zayid marking the end of Visigothic rule in Spain and the beginning of 150 years of peace. Thus began what was known as the Golden Age of Spain. The Iberian caliphate was independent of Baghdad and encouraged the flowering of Spanish-Jewish culture at the same time that it was being suppressed by the Baghdad caliphate.


1449 January 27, TOLEDO ANTI-CONVERSO RIOTS (Spain)

New Christians (Conversos) were attacked during a revolt against taxation imposed by lvaro de Luna on behalf of King John II of Castile. The conversos were accused of siding with the tax collectors. Three hundred of them decided to band together and defend themselves. During the attack one Christian was killed. In response, 22 conversos were murdered and numerous houses burned.


1469 TOMAS DE TORQUEMADA C. 1420-1498 (Spain)

A Dominican, he became Queen Isabella's confessor. He exerted tremendous influence - especially over the queen - and was instrumental in persuading the king and queen to expel the Jews in 1492. Torquemada - together with Cardinal Mendoza - convinced the pope to establish the Spanish Inquisition. He was appointed Inquisitor General in 1483.


1413 February 7, TORTOSA DISPUTATION (Aragon, Spain)

Vincent Ferrer , assisted by the apostate Joshua (Ha)Lorki (Geronimo de Santa Fe/ Hieronymus de Sancta Fide), known to the Jews as Hamegadef (the Blasphemer), convinced Pope Benedict XIII to stage a disputation at Tortosa over messianic doctrine . It was presided over by the pope himself and lasted for a period of twenty-one months in sixty-nine sessions. The Jews, led by Vidal Benvenisti, Astruc Halevi and Joseph Albo, were faced with an opening salvo by Benedict in which he made the expected outcome clear. Sante Fe also attacked the Talmud as anti-Christian and urged its banning. Few of the Jews' counter-arguments were officially recorded.


1936 December 10, TOWER AND STOCKADE SETTLEMENTS (Homa U'Migdal (Eretz Israel)

The first of the Tower and Stockade Settlements, Tel Amel, (modern day Kibbutz Nir David) was erected. These settlements were a Jewish response to the Arab attacks from 1936 to 1939. Built of prefabricated wood, on remote parcels of land purchased by the Jewish National Fund, they were set up overnight with the help of hundreds of volunteers. Eventually 118 of this type of settlement were erected throughout the Galilee, Beit Shean Valley and the Jordan Valley.


1946 October 5 - 6, TOWER AND STOCKADE SETTLEMENTS (Eretz Israel)

In one night, 11 new settlements (the largest number to date) were put up in the Negev by using the stockade and tower method. First begun in 1936 (at Nir David), 118 settlements were eventually set up in this manner, helping to determine the borders of the future state.


1933 August 25, TRANSFER (Haavara) AGREEMENT

Negotiated between the German Zionist Federation, the Jewish Agency and the German Finance Ministry. The agreement encouraged the emigration of German Jews. Although forced to leave their assets in Germany, they received partial payment through the Jewish agency which in turn imported and sold German goods for the same amount of capital although it was forced to accept a far lower rate of exchange. Levi Eshkol (later prime minister) was sent to Berlin to run the company. The agreement was strongly criticized by Jabotinsky and those Jews trying to organize a boycott of German goods. In all, $40,419,000 was transferred to Germany by 1939, while almost 60,000 German Jews were able to leave to Eretz Israel.


1154 - 1172 TRAVELS OF BENJAMIN OF TUDELA (Spain)

Jewish traveler and historian. His book Sefer Hamasot (Book of Travel) recounted his travels throughout the Mediterranean, the Middle East, India, Ceylon and China. He gave details about each Jewish community: its size, scholars, and economic conditions. Almost everything we know about the Jewish communities of his day came from his book.


1667 July 31, TREATY OF BREDA ( Breda, Netherlands)

Signed between England, the Dutch Republic, France, and Denmark, ended the second Anglo-Dutch War. Under the treaty England received the Dutch provinces in the New World, and guaranteed full rights of worship trade and property to its inhabitants including the Jews. Jews were as yet forbidden to build synagogues.


1229 TREATY OF JAFFA (Eretz Israel)

Between Emperor Frederick II and the Sultan of Egypt. Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem were returned to the crusaders. Jews were once again forbidden to live in Jerusalem.


1921 March, TREATY OF RIGA (Poland)

Poland's post-World War I borders were finally recognized. Poland received almost one-third of the Ukraine along with Galicia, Pozania, Pomerania, and parts of Silesia, bringing the Jewish population of Poland to between 11-15% according to conservative estimations.


1920 TREATY OF TRIANON (Hungary)

Fifty-one percent of Hungary's Jews became citizens of Rumania and Czechoslovakia, yet remained loyal to Hungary. At the same time they were resented as aliens by their host countries. Many of the remaining Jews in dissected Hungary soon assimilated, yet despite this they were regarded as menaces and third class citizens.


843 TREATY OF VERDUN (Carolinigian Empire)

Separated Germany from the Frankish (French) empire. Until this time the Frankish Empire also included Germany. As such, when the Carolingians were tolerant to their Jewish subjects it effected all the Jews in the kingdom. With the breakup of Carolingian empire the Kingdom became decentralized, and feudal lords and church leaders gained more power. This adversely affected the position of the Jews.


1648 TREATY OF WESTPHALIA (France)

Victory for the Protestants. France annexed Alsace and Lorraine. This region, with its many Jews, became part within a France that was still known for its lack of toleration.


1942 October 1, - 1943 August 2, TREBLINKA (Poland)

Twenty-five railway cars full of human hair were delivered to factories for the use in making industrial felt as well as slippers for U-boat crews.


1942 July 23, - 1943 October 14, TREBLINKA II (Poland)

Death camp went into operation with the first transport of Warsaw's Jews. (Treblinka II was different from Treblinka I which was a labor camp and also housed political prisoners). Over 750,000 Jews were murdered there. The camp was closed and dismantled after a revolt.The camp was organized by Odilo Globocnik. Those that ran it included Joseph (Sepp) Hirtreiter and Kurt Franz, who were sentenced to life imprisonment, and Franz Stangl, who was caught in Brazil and sentenced in 1971 to life imprisonment but died the same year.


992 TREVES (France)

The Bishop ordered the mass conversion of the Jewish population. Before the edict took effect, the Jews spent the day fasting and an effigy of the Bishop was burned. He died the same day and the decree was averted. The Christians attributed it to magic - the Jews to divine intervention.


1096 April 10, TRIER (Germany)

After being attacked by a mob and threatened with death, Bishop Egelbert offered to save all Jews who were willing to be baptized. Most Jews chose to drown themselves instead.


1945 July 4, TRIPOLI (Libya)

And in other Libyan towns, Muslims begin anti-Jewish riots.


1945 November 5, TRIPOLITANIA PROVINCE RIOTS (Libya)

In three days of riots more than 140 Jews were murdered (including 36 children) and hundreds more injured in the British controlled area of Tripolitania. The British were criticized for not acting to quell the riots soon after they began. Nine synagogues and over 4000 Jewish houses were destroyed. This directly led to the mass immigration to Israel which began four years later.


1288 April 24, TROYES (France)

A Christian body was placed in the house of the richest Jew of the city. The resulting tribunal condemned fourteen of the city's wealthiest men and women to be burned at the stake.


692 TRULAN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL (Italy)

Also known as the Quinisext council since it combined the fifth and sixth councils. In addition to ratifying over 100 previous decisions, it intensified the Eastern Church's segregation of the Jews. Clergymen were forbidden, on pain of excommunication, to bathe in public baths with Jews, employ a Jewish doctor or socialize with Jews.


1942 September 23, TUCHIN/TUCZYN UPRISING(Ukraine)

Up till then, around 3000 Jews survived by working in the local tannery and cotton mill. After the Germans and Ukrainians surrounded the town, the heads of the community decided to resist and almost the entire town decided not to submit. Among the principal organizers of the resistance were the chairman of the Judenrat Gecel Schwarzman, and his deputy, Meir Himmelfarb. While some were burning down the ghetto, others rushed and flattened the barbed wire fence. Almost 2,000 people succeeded in getting to the forests. Unfortunately, there were no partisans operating in that area and local Ukrainians gave many of them away. Starving and with little hope, 500 of them believed a Nazi promise and returned to the ghetto where they were shot.


1648 June 24, TULCZYN (Poland)

An agreement between the 2,000 Jews and 600 Christians of Tulczyn to defend it at all costs succeeded in preventing the Cossacks from capturing the town. Kryvonos, the Cossack leader, contacted the local governor and offered to leave the Poles alone if he gave them the Jews. The Jews found out about the plan and only through the intervention of leader Rabbi Aaron (who feared reprisals) persuaded them not to kill the local leaders. Instead, Rabbi Aaron convinced the governor to take a high ransom and give it to the Cossacks. Kryvonos accepted the ransom, entered the town, killed most of the Jews and then killed the Poles for betraying the Jews. For the most part, during the entire war, the Poles and the Jews were uneasy allies against the Cossacks.


1535 July 21, TUNIS

Was sacked by the Spaniards. The Jewish community was destroyed.


1857 September, TUNISIA

Under a direct threat from Napoleon III's troops, Muhammad al-Sadiq-Bey (1857-82) proclaimed the Pacte Fondamental which gave equal rights to Jews. It was enforced following the execution of a Jew, Batto Sfez, for allegedly blaspheming Islam. By 1864 the new constitution was abolished by the Bey due to pressure from the population.


1908 TURKEY

Granted Jews political rights.


1908 TURKISH REVOLUTION (Ottoman Empire)

The Young Turks disposed of Sultan Abdul Hamid "the Damned". The new government retained the Sultan's policies towards a Jewish Eretz Israel.


1942 May 8, TUVIA BIELSKI (Novogrudok region - Poland)

Together with his brothers, Zusye and Asael (Eshahol) and Aharon, encouraged entire families to escape from ghettos and join his fighters in Belarus. He began with 100 men, and they were known as the Zhukov Detachment. By December 1943, his "Family" had 1,230 men, women, and children - only 30% of whom could fight. Asael was killed at Königsberg in 1944. Tuvia eventually moved to the USA where he died in 1987.


681 January 9, TWELFTH COUNCIL (SYNOD), TOLEDO (Spain)

The Talmud and other Jewish books were burned in Spain. The synod was a local church council whose decrees were not enforced by the entire church.


1941 May 18, TWENTY THREE PALMACH FIGHTERS (Eretz Israel)

Set sail on the British boat HMS Sea Lion on their way to a mission in pro-Nazi Lebanon. They were never heard from again.


1494 TYRANU / TRNAVA (Hungary)

Riots began after a blood libel with 16 Jews being burned at the stake. Tyranu was one of the oldest Jewish settlements in Hungary/Slovakia being founded before 1350.


1124 TYRE (Lebanon)

Finally surrendered to the Crusaders. The Jewish population was not harmed.


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