Poale Zion. It opposed Jewish religious life.
Began to methodically dismiss Jewish factory workers.
Members of anti-Semitic political organizations (Endeks and Naras) attacked Jews in the streets.
1934 September 13, POLAND
Just eight months after Poland signed a non-aggression pact with Germany, it revoked the minority treaty - the first international effort to establish and enforce minority rights - that was signed in Paris in 1919 on the same day as the Versailles treaty.
Edward Smigly-Rydz (Pilsudski's immediate successor) ordered Jews to be segregated in university classrooms. He was part of what was known as the anti-Semitic "colonels" clique." (see 1937)
1937 October 20, POLAND
In response to discrimination policies, Jews, assorted liberals and students went on strike. Within a few weeks the government succeeded in putting down the strike and enforcing its decrees.
1938 March 25, POLAND
After several attempts, the Seym (parliament) outlawed ritual slaughter of meat. The bill was never enforced since the Seym dissolved in September during the Czech crisis.
Polish legend has it that when various tribes decided to unite, they asked a Jew, Abraham Prochownik, to be their king. He declined in favor of a peasant named Piast, the founder of the Piast dynasty.
1939 October 27, POLAND
Forced labor was instituted by Hans Frank for all Jews between the ages of 14 through 60.
1945 October, POLAND
From the beginning of the year until October, 351 Jews had been murdered in anti-Jewish riots in Poland.
1941 October 15, POLAND
As part of its plan to concentrate all Jews in one region, a regulation was enacted enforcing the death penalty for anyone leaving any district of the general government.
According to legend a certain Prince Leshek(Leszek) IV gave German Jews written permission to enter Poland. What is known is that German Jews did arrive in the late 9th century prior to the Piast Dynasty (960) and preceding its becoming a Christian country in 966.
1939 September 27 - 28, POLAND SURRENDERED
Warsaw fell. Poland's capital, home to 350,000 Jews, surrendered to German troops after a three-week siege. Out of over 90,000 Polish Jewish soldiers, 32,216 were killed and another 61,000 captured, most of them dying in captivity. The first stage of surrender was the forcing of all Jews into large cities and the establishing of local Jewish councils. The second stage was ghettoization (May 1940) - total separation from other populations, and the final stage (December 1941) was annihilation. At the outbreak of the war there were 3.3 million Jews in Poland. Less than 300,000 would survive.
1772 - 1795 POLAND WAS PARTITIONED
This was the first of three partitions (1772, 1794, 1795). The Ukraine went to Russia, Galicia to Austria (whose Jewish population now doubled), and Lithuania to Prussia. Thus Catherine II inherited many of the same Jews she was trying to be rid of. Each monarch made an effort to integrate and assimilate its Jews into the "State of Order" and central administration, thus abolishing self-rule for the most part.
1918 POLAND, ESTONIA, LITHUANIA AND LATVIA
1919 January 26, POLISH ELECTIONS
Although the Jews won about 10% of the vote they were only allowed to elect 4% of the representatives due to the electoral system.
1942 November 27, POLISH NATIONAL COMMITTEE
The Polish parliament in exile, demanded that the allies intervene to stop the extermination of Jews in Poland. This call as well as others, were reported in the New York times and other media. Coupled with with the defeat of the Germans in Stalingrad, it may have helped change slightly the position of some of Germany's allies ( e.g. Romania Slovakia and France ), as to their active participation in the holocaust during 1943.
1863 January 2, - 1864 June 18, POLISH REBELLION
Against Russian rule, and aimed at the restoration of the Polishâ€“Lithuanian Commonwealth which had been established in 1569. The commonwealth had been forced to become a Russian protectorate in 1768, which was then followed by three partitions. To some degree, the revolt was driven by the success of the Italian revolution of 1859. Most Rabbinical leaders were reverently anti- Russian and encouraged Polish patriotism. They included the Hasidic leaders, Menahem Mendel Morgensztern of Kotzk, Isaac Meir Alter of Ger, and Israel Freidman of Ruzhin.
1937 May 5, POLISH-FRENCH COMMISSION
Left to Madagascar to investigate the possibility of sending Polish and/ or French immigrant Jews to the Island for resettlement. The commission, under Mieczyslaw B. Lepecki, the director of the special office of the prime minister, was supported by the foreign minister Josef Beck. Its report stated that it was probably not a feasible solution, for the number they had in mind.
1889 POLNO (Poland)
A young Jew named Hilsner was imprisoned on a ritual murder charge. Although there wasn't any real incriminating evidence, he was kept in jail until after the Revolution in 1918.
1944 April 15, PONARY (Lithuania)
During the years from July 1941 until July 1944, approximately 100,000 people (mainly Jews) were murdered in the forests of the resort town, Ponary in Lithuania. As the Russians approached, a group of 70 Jews and 10 Russians were given the task of burning all the bodies to cover up the mass murder. Realizing that at the end of their work they too would be killed they dug a tunnel thirty meters long with spoons over a period of three months. On the night of April 15 they escaped. Only 13 reached safety alive.
1826 August 20, POPE LEO XII
Prohibited Jews from leaving the Rome ghetto without a written permit from the Criminal Tribunal. Jews meeting Christians while outside the ghetto were forbidden from speaking to them in a "familiar way".He also rebuilt the ghetto in Ancona, which had been demolished by Napoleon.
1063 POPE ALEXANDER (Spain)
In reaction to some of the disorders in Christian Spain, he issued a warning against attacking local Jewish communities - despite the fact that at the same time he was trying to organize a "crusade" against Moslem Spain.
1066 POPE ALEXANDER II (France-Spain)
Warned French knights fighting to reconquer Spain to stop "excesses" against the Jews. His advice wasn't heeded.
1751 June 14, POPE BENEDICT XIV
Sent an encyclical (a papal letter) Aquo Primum to the heads of the Polish clergy. In it Benedict(1675-1758) praised their efforts in combating Jewish " domination." He further encouraged them not to lease any land, or loan any money to Jews. Benedict called the Jews “cruel task makers" and urged that no Jew be in any position to give an order to a Christian including as an employer.
1389 July 2, POPE BONIFACE IX
Based on a Bull of Pope Callixtus II (1120) Sicut Judaeis(Latin: "As the Jews")written during the first crusade, he forbade Christians to harm the Jews, destroy their cemeteries, or forcibly baptize them. The Bull was confirmed many times by different popes but unfortunately did not have a lasting effect.
1120 POPE CALIXTUS II (1065-1124)
Prompted by the massacres of first crusade, he issued the protective bull, Constitutio pro Judaeis known as Sicut Judaeis (Latin: "As the Jews") or Sicut Judaeis non debet esse licentia , condemning the persecution of Jews. The term "bull" referred to an official document issued by various Popes and is taken from the Latin bullum, "seal". This specific bull was not "pro Jewish" per se, but rather reflected the Church's official position, as stated by Pope Gregory I (598), which objected to forced conversions or the wanton destruction of synagogues and cemeteries . In addition it states "Too, no Christian ought to presume... to injure their persons, or with violence to take their property. Some newly elected Popes would issue a similar pro Judaeis bull, on occasion after receiving a gift from the Jewish community.rnAlthough the bull was reaffirmed by 20 popes over the next 40 years, it was in reality ineffective and ignored.
1267 June 26, Pope Clement IV
Issued the papal bull Turbato corde., which equated conversion or relapsing (of Jewish converts) to Judaism with heresy. According to Clement, Dominican and Franciscan Inquisitors should include in their investigations, baptized Jews, and those who help them return to Judaism, as well as Christians who express interest in Judaism, and Jews who encourage such conversions.
1267 July 14, POPE CLEMENT IV
Ordered the archbishop of Tarragona Benito de Rocabertí to gather all Jewish books for examination by the Dominicans and Franciscans. He strongly urged that they take Pablo Christiani (see 1194) to coordinate their efforts.
1668 January 28, POPE CLEMENT IX (1667-1669) (Italy)
Cancelled the humiliating forced races of near naked Jews through the streets of Rome during Saturnalia carnival time (known as the Palio). In return for this revocation, the Jews of Rome had to pay a special cancellation tax of 200 ducats. This tax was paid for almost 200 years.The races had been first introduced by Pope Paul II in 1466.
1348 September 26, POPE CLEMENT VI
Issued a Bull contradicting the libel against the Jews. In it he stated that the Jews were suffering just like the rest of Europe. Other rulers issued similar denunciations, but to little effect.
1523 - 1533 POPE CLEMENT VII
Another Medici Pope who continued and expanded the policies of Leo X regarding the Jews.
1593 POPE CLEMENT VIII (Italy)
Issued papal bull Caeca et Obdurata Hebraeorum perfidia (The blind and obdurate perfidy of the Hebrews) , expelling the Jews from all Papal states except Rome and Ancona, and thus revoking the bull Christiana pietas (1586) of his predecessor Pope Sixtus . The Jews had three months to leave.He also confirming an earlier bull of Pope Paul III Cum Nimis Absurdum ( 1555) which established the Jewish ghetto in Rome.
1145 December 1, POPE EUGENIUS ( EUGENE) III
Published a call for a second crusade after the fall of the crusader state Edessa (in present day Turkey). He offered absolution for any debts owed to Jews to anyone who would join.
594 October, POPE GREGORY I
Recommended the use of financial persuasion to convert Jews in Sicily. He did not approve of forced conversion per se, as it could lead to "back sliding".
1231 POPE GREGORY IX
Instituted the papal inquisition. The inquisitional court was set up to look into the large scale heresies (i.e. Cathari and Waldenses) which arose during the 11th and 12th centuries. Until that time, most treatment of heretics was dealt with locally, usually by burning. The name "Inquisition" is derived from the Latin verb "inquiro" (inquire into), and at lest at the beginning, inquisitors traveled from town to town looking into individual cases and pronouncing judgment. According to Gregory's decree any heretic who confessed and repented only received imprisonment with penance. The heretic who persisted received capital punishment. The inquisitors - or judges - of this medieval Inquisition were recruited almost exclusively from the Franciscan and Dominican orders. There were three inquisitions. The first started in 1231. The second, which was against Conversos, started in 1478. It was known as the Spanish Inquisition (also see 1461). The third, which started in 1542, was for the most part was against the protestants, and was known as the Roman inquisition.
1234 POPE GREGORY IX
In his Decretals, ( official letters of response) The pope condemned the Jews to perpetual servitude based on the doctrine of perpetua servitus iudaeorum. This would result in official second class status for Jews.
1239 June 20, POPE GREGORY IX
Published his bull Si vera sunt, “ If it is true” which was addressed to the kings and prelates of France and Spain. In it Gregory (1145-1241) ordered the confiscation, inspection, and burning of the Talmud, or any other Jewish book which might be construed as blasphemy. Over the next three centuries this Bull would serve to encourage the repeated burnings of the Talmud, and other Jewish books.
590 POPE GREGORY THE GREAT
Formulated the official Papal policy regarding Jews; they were to be tolerated according to the regulations passed by the previous council. Gregory objected to forced baptism, but valued converts. This policy which was officially set in canon 60 of the council of Toledo(633), became the basis for the rejection of forced baptism by many Popes. Even anti- Jewish popes like Innocent III rejected forced baptism.
1078 POPE GREGORY VII (Hildebrand)
Prohibited Jews from holding offices in Christendom.
1272 October 7, POPE GREGORY X (590-604)
Condemned the ritual murder libels. In addition, since Jews could not bear witness against Christians, he refused to accept testimony by a Christian against a Jew unless it was confirmed by another Jew.
1581 March 30, POPE GREGORY XIII
Issued a Bull banning the use of Jewish doctors. This did not prevent many popes from using Jews as their personal physicians.
1578 September 4, POPE GREGORY XIII
Ordered the Jews of Rome to contribute 1,100 gold scudi (Approximately $12,600) toward the maintenance of the Casa dei Catecumeni (Home for Converts to Christianity). One scudo was roughly $125 in today’s terms.
1577 September 1, POPE GREGORY XIII (Italy)
Pope Gregory XIII, issued the Bull Vices ejus nos “ He Turns Us”, reconfirming the Bull of Pope Nicholas III (1278),which decreed that one hundred and fifty Jews must hear conversion sermons in Rome every week. He reissued a similar Bull a few years later in 1584. A college for neophytes was set up with instruction in Hebrew and even Arabic.
1836 November 5, POPE GREGORY XVI
Refused to stop the special cancellation tax which the Jews had to pay in lieu of running naked through the streets during the Saturnalia winter carnival. The race had been initiated by Pope Paul II in 1466. Pope Gregory XVI ruled: "It is not opportune to make any innovations" and affirmed its continuation.
1843 September 29, POPE GREGORY XVI
Denied Klemens von Metternich’s (1773-1879) chief minister of the Austrian Empire appeal for Tolerance Towards Jews. The Pope replied that the restrictions placed on Jews have a sacred origin and cannot possibly be lightened. “the Jews are forbidden such ownership ( property) by the sacred Canons as a Nation of deicides and blasphemers of Christ,”
1838 July 18, POPE GREGORY XVI
Criticized the lack of measures against Jews in recent years."The unfortunate political eventsâ€¦ have produced ... the failure to observe Apostolic Constitutions and the other Edicts regarding the Jews."
1221 April 29, POPE HONORIUS III REAFFIRMED DECISIONS OF THE FOURTH LATERAN COUNCIL
rnIn his bull Ad nostram Noveritis audientiam (To the hearing, know that…), Honorius reconfirmed his previous bull (1218) and demanded the enforcement of the 4th Lateran Council ban on Jews holding public office. Jews were required to wear a distinctive badge in public and were made to pay a tithe to local churches.rn
1247 July 3, POPE INNOCENT IV
After the body of a two year old girl found in Velress (Vaucluse), France, was used as an excuse for plundering the surrounding area (March 27), Pope Innocent IV (who was semi-retired by Emperor Frederick II) issued the Papal Bull Lacrimabilem Judaeorum against blood libels and sent it throughout Germany and France.
1250 April 15, POPE INNOCENT IV
Issued a papal bull denying Jews in Cordova permission to build a synagogue. It also forbade them from living in the same house as Christians, from eating or drinking with Christians, or generally associating with Christians in any way.
1320 September 6, POPE JOHN XII
Ordered the burning of the Talmud and the expulsion of Jews from the Papal States. A large bribe managed to avert the expulsion order although two years later the Talmud was burned in Rome during the festival of Shavuot (Pentecost). During the riots which ensued, the father-in-law of Immanuel of Rome was killed and local expulsions did take place ( Milan).
1881 - 1963 POPE JOHN XXIII
The first Pope to speak out forcefully on behalf of the Jews. Pope John (1958-1963) followed the controversial Pope Pius XII who during the holocaust had never publicly condemned the murder of the Jews. Pope John was outspoken in his sympathy for those Jews slaughtered by the Nazi's. He composed a "Prayer of Repentance" in which he begged forgiveness for all that the Church had done to the Jews.
1554 May 29, POPE JULIUS III
After an appeal by Jews in Catholic countries, the Pope agreed only to allow the burning of the Talmud, but not "harmless rabbinical writings".
1513 - 1521 POPE LEO X
An enlightened clergyman from the Medici family, he even encouraged Hebrew scholarship.
1420 November 25, POPE MARTIN V
Favorably reinstated the old "privileges"/charter of the Jews and ordered that no child under the age of twelve could be forcibly baptized without parental consent.
1422 February 20, POPE MARTIN V (1417-31)
Issued a Bull reminding Christians that Christianity was derived from Judaism and warning Church leaders not to incite against the Jews.He also criticized Dominican friars for their policy of compulsory sermons. The Bull was withdrawn the following year, following allegations that the Jews of Rome attained the Bull by fraud.
1427 March 9, POPE MARTIN V (Italy)
Ordered the Italian fleets to cease transporting Jews to Eretz Israel. The basis for the order was the claim that the Jews were responsible for building a Mosque on Mount Zion in the hope of eventually turning it into a synagogue. This made immigration to Eretz Israel far more difficult.
1278 August 4, POPE NICHOLAS III
Issued the papal bull Vineam Soreth , forcing Jews to attend conversion sermons. The earliest record of forced sermons stems from Agobard of Lyon's (see 820) Epistola de baptizandis Hebraeis, where he ordered the local priests to preach in the Synagogues. This will remain in effect for the next 600 years (see 1870).
1540 May 12, POPE PAUL III
Published a bull against blood libels, concluding that "those accusing the Jews of drinking the blood of children are blinded by avarice, and only want to rob their money"
1542 POPE PAUL III (Rome, Italy)
The Congregation of the Holy office - also known as the Roman Inquisition - was established, originally to counter Protestantism. In 1555, when Cardinal Caraffa became Pope Paul IV, he immediately expanded its operation, advocating the tracking down of all "suspects", especially conversos. Until this date, many conversos had found refuge in the papal states and were able to return to Judaism unmolested. After this, the Inquisition operated within the papal states, Venice, Milan, Naples, Mantua, and Tuscany.
1559 POPE PAUL IV
Published the first Index of Forbidden Books which would lead to burning of the Talmud as well as any other books deemed offensive to Catholic faith or morals.
1555 May 23, - June, POPE PAUL IV (1555-1559) (Ancona Italy)
The former Cardinal Caraffa was elected to the papacy. As part of his Counter-Reformation, Pope Paul IV supported the arrest of 51 Conversos. Twenty-five were burned. rnDonna Gracia Mendes Nasi tried to organize a boycott of the port of Ancona by Jewish merchants throughout the Ottoman empire but was opposed by some merchants and many rabbis who feared that the Pope would retaliate.rn
1564 March 24, POPE PIUS IV
Permitted the publication of the Talmud - after censorship and the deletion of the name "Talmud".
1852 POPE PIUS IX
Persuaded Tuscany to ban the use Jewish doctors.
1852 February 21, POPE PIUS IX (1792 – 1878)
Protested the Grand Duke of Tuscany Leopold II’s, decision allow them to live outside the ghetto. In his objection he wrote "Otherwise, it will open the door to requests for other civil rights for Jews and for other non-Catholics."
1566 April 19, POPE PIUS V (The Papal States, Italy)
Three months into his reign, he rejected the leniencies of his predecessor and re-invoked all the restrictions of Paul IV. These included Jews being forced to wear a special cap as well as the prohibitions against owning real estate ( see 1567) and practicing medicine on Christians. Communities were not allowed to have more than one synagogue and Jews were confined to a cramped ghetto.
1775 April 5, POPE PIUS VI (1775-98)
Partly in reaction to success of the reformation, he issued the Editto Sopra Gli Ebrei. The proclamation of Pope Pius VI reinstated all former anti-Jewish legislation. The 44 clauses included prohibitions against possessing talmudic writings and erection of grave stones. They also forbade Jews from passing the night outside the ghetto under pain of death. The regulations were in effect until the arrival of Napoleon's army 25 years later.
1937 March 14, POPE PIUS XI
Criticized the Nazis for interfering with Catholic education in the Third Reich. Although he denounced Nazi racism and totalitarianism, he also mentioned that the Jews were guilty of deicide. This was one of the few times the Vatican came out publicly against the Nazi regime. The next pope, Pius XII, did even less.
1928 March 25, POPE PIUS XI
Disbanded the catholic organization Friends of Israel Opus sacerdotale Amici Israel, which had been active for only two years. Their aim had been to promote a better attitude to Jews by among other things canceling the charge of deicide against the Jews, and to work towards their conversion.
1945 June 2, POPE PIUS XII
At the college of cardinals attacked the former Nazi regime. In his speech he mentioned the catholic priests imprisoned in Dachau, and other priests and nuns who died in Nazi concentration camps. He did not say one word about the annihilation of the Jews or any other group.
1938 May 27, POPE PIUS XII
In one of his rare public references to Jews, described them at an international conference in Bucharest, as a people " whose lips curse him and whose hearts reject him". During the war and in the aftermath he never mentioned the word Jew.
1939 November 11, POPE PIUS XII
Sent Hitler a congratulatory letter expressing his â€śdeep satisfaction", after he survived an assassination attempt in Munich by a communist sympathizer.
1943 June 2, POPE PIUS XII
Speaking to the Sacred College of cardinals, he deplored those who suffer " for reasons of nationality or decent". Never once during the war did he mention Jews by name stating to American diplomat Harold H. Tittmann, that " If I denounce the Nazisâ€¦ and Germany loses the warâ€¦ Germans would feel that I contributed to their defeatâ€¦ I can't afford the risk of alienating so many of the faithful. "
1946 September 14, POPE PIUS XII (Rome, Italy)
Met with Rabbi Phillip Bernstein who had replaced Judge Simon Rifkind as advisor on Jewish affairs to the U.S. European theater of operations. Bernstein asked the pope to condemn the pogroms. The pope's reply was cautious, claiming that it was difficult to communicate with the Church in Poland because of the Iron Curtain.
1482 January, POPE SIXTUS IV
Published his bull Numquam Dubitavimus (He Never Hesitated To…). Sixtus permitted Ferdinand to appoint inquisitors to continue with his investigations and to root out any Jewish practice among converts to Christianity.Yet, Sixtus after receiving complaints from conversos regarding illegal procedures, initially protested that the inquisitors were abusing their powers. Ferdinand forcefully rejected the Popes remonstrations and intervention. The pope’s protest subsided.
1478 November 1, POPE SIXTUS IV (Spain)
At the request of King Ferdinand V ( aka Ferdinand II of Aragon) and Queen Isabella, he issued a Bull Exigit sincerć devotioni s empowering them to establish to investigate charges of heresy known as the Spanish Inquisition. Unlike the papal inquisition of 1230, this one was totally under royal authority. This tribunal was established ostensibly to root out "backsliding” Jews who had converted, sometimes under duress, to Christianity. Often these Jews - known as New Christians or conversos - succeeded in obtaining high social and political positions which aroused the jealousy on the part of “old Christians”. Thus, although officially religious in nature, the inquisition was a political tool. Specific signs such as no fires on the Sabbath, no eating of pork, washing hands before eating, turning the face towards the wall when dying, etc., were given to root out those who may have continued to secretly practice Judaism. The Spanish inquisition- which spread to all Spanish and later Portuguese (1536) colonies and possessions - was finally disbanded on July 15, 1834. It is estimated that over 300,000 people were tried (not all for Judaizing) and 30,000 executed.
1483 October 17, POPE SIXTUS IV (Spain)
Despite his previous protest, Pope Sixtus gave into Ferdinand's pressure (allegedly threatening to withhold military support from his kingdom of Sicily) and extended the authority of the Inquisition to Aragon, Catalonia, and Valencia. This consolidated the Inquisition into one central body under Torquemada.
1586 October 22, POPE SIXTUS V (Italy)
Gregory's successor. He revoked Gregory's policies allowing Jews to reside in the Papal states and to print the Talmud. These policies were reinstated upon his death and lasted until 1870.
768 - 772 POPE STEPHAN III (Carolingian Empire)
Complained to the Bishops of Narbonne and Septimania about the Frankish Kings allowing Jews to own land.
335 POPE SYLVESTER I DIED
He served as the Pope (314-335) the time of Nicea. Though little is known about him, he did forbid priests to "be friendly or sociable with Jews", on pain of excommunication. Today in many parts of Europe and Asia New year's day is also known as "Sylvester".
1365 June 7, Pope URBAN V
Reaffirmed the Bull of Sicuti judaeis “ Thus to the Jews”, forbidding to molest Jews or to force them to baptism. Many other popes published similar affirmations, but unfortunately they often were ignored or rejected (see 590, & 1120).
1625 October 23, POPE URBAN VIII
Decreed that Jews should be buried in unmarked graves. Pope Urban VIII (1568-44) also ordered per-existing tombstones to be removed or destroyed.
1844 POPULATION OF JAFFA
Was estimated as thirteen thousand inhabitants. These included eight thousand Turco-Egyptians, four thousand Greeks and Armenians, and one thousand Jews and Maronites. Very few local Arabs were noted as living in the city.
1931 POPULATION OF JEWS IN POLAND
An estimated 3,114,000 Jews lived in Poland, comprising 9.8% of the total populace.
1248 - 1325 PORTUGAL
In spite of the problems that hampered the awakening in Spain, the Jews in Portugal under Alfonso III and Diniz enjoyed a fair amount of freedom. They were not required to wear a badge or pay forced taxes to the Church. They also held high offices (i.e. Chief Rabbi Judah who also served as the Treasurer). At the end of this period the Church began to resent the position of the Jews and started to complain and pressure subsequent rulers.
1392 July 17, PORTUGAL
King John (Joao I) (1385-1432) ordered compliance with the Bull of Pope Boniface IX protecting Jews from forced baptism and extended it to Spanish Jewish refugees.
1531 December 17, PORTUGAL
Under pressure from King John III, Pope Clement VII appointed Frei Diogo da Silva, the king's confessor, as the Inquisitor General. Frei Diogo never took up his post, and was accused of being in the pay of the New Christians.(see 1533).
1536 May 23, PORTUGAL
Pope Paul III, acting upon the petition of King John III, issued a Bull providing for the establishment of an Inquisition based on the Spanish archetype to begin in 1539. In 1544, after numerous bribes, it was again postponed for three years but reestablished permanently in 1547. The last Auto da Fe in Portugal was held in October 1791. Over the years (until 1821) there were more then 40,000 recorded cases tried before the Portuguese Inquisition, with 30,000 condemnations (though many of these were reconciled).
1547 July 16, PORTUGAL
An irreversible and independent Inquisition was finally approved by the Bull Meditatio Cordis by Pope Paul III. Offices of the Inquisition were established in Lisbon, Evora, Coimbra, and even in Goa.
1654 January 26, PORTUGAL
With the capture of Pernambuco (Recife) from the Dutch, Portugal retook Peru and Brazil. The Jews, having fought on the side of the Dutch, fled by the hundreds to North America, especially to New Amsterdam.
1739 October 19, PORTUGAL
Antonio Jose da Silva, a well-known dramatist, was burned at the stake for alleged heresy. Da Silva, whose parents had also been persecuted by the Inquisition, was arrested numerous times and tortured. Although the King himself was inclined to leniency, he was burned while one of his plays was being performed in a popular theater in Lisbon.
1765 October 27, PORTUGAL
The last "public" Auto da Fe (Act of Faith) was held. The latest recorded Auto da Fe in Portugal was held in 1791 and the last in Valencia, Spain was held in 1826.
1814 July 21, PORTUGAL
King Ferdinand VII re-established the Inquisition six years after it was abolished by Joseph Boneparte.
1674 October 3, PORTUGUESE INQUISITION
Against the Maranos was temporary suspended by pope Clement X. Unfortunately it continued unabated in Spain, and was reintroduced into Portugal by the next pope, Innocent XI in 1681.
1938 January 12, POSEIDON (Eretz Israel)
An illegal ship charted by HeHalutz arrived in Eretz Israel signaling a renewed attempt to bring in refugees. Later that year the Haganah officially joined the effort, establishing the Mosad le-Aliyah Bet ("Organization for 'Illegal' Immigration") which was run by Shaul Avigur (Meirov).
1468 POSEN (Poland)
With conditions similar to that of Cracow (1464), an anti-Jewish riot ensued.
1590 June 11, POSEN FIRE (Germany)
Built of wood, the entire Jewish quarter burned while the gentile population watched and pillaged. Fifteen people died and eighty scrolls were burned.
1064 PRAGUE (Bohemia)
Western Jews arriving here were not allowed residence and so moved east to Russia.
1093 PRAGUE (Bohemia)
Comas, the early Bohemian historian, mentions Jews living in what he called the Mezi gradi Vysehrad (between the castles) on the right bank of the river "who had amassed large amounts of gold and silver." This settlement was destroyed in 1096 and not rebuilt.
1270 PRAGUE (Bohemia)
The Altneuschul (the "Old-New Synagogue"), the oldest existing synagogue in Europe, was built in the new Jewish quarter.
1601 March 13, PRAGUE (Bohemia)
Mordchai Meisels, one of the wealthiest people and biggest philanthropists in Bohemia, died. Although his widow had given presents of tens of thousands of florins to the king and city, soldiers forcibly entered his house on the Sabbath. His nephews were tortured until they "confessed" that there was still more money hidden away. All the money was declared property of the Bohemian Chamber, with nothing left to the family.
1689 June 22, PRAGUE (Bohemia)
The Jewish quarter was destroyed by French troops who shelled the area. In one synagogue the roof caved in, killing the 100 people who had sought refuge there. Most of the population was taken in by their Christian neighbors until new shelters were built.
1744 November 8, PRAGUE (Bohemia)
Frederick the Great took Prague in the Wars of Succession and the populace ransacked the ghetto. He soon left and the Croats returned.
They accused the Jews of treason and again their quarters were sacked, this time with the help of Austrian and Hungarian soldiers.
1852 PRAGUE (Bohemia)
The ghetto was officially abolished.
1897 PRAGUE (Bohemia)
After a decade of developing anti-Semitism, anti-Jewish riots broke out.
970 PRAGUE (Bohemia)
On a visit to the city, the Spanish Jewish traveler Ibrahim Ibn Ya'kub found Jewish merchants actively involved in trade.
1744 December 18, PRAGUE (Bohemia)
Empress Maria Theresa ordered the expulsion of all the Jews of Bohemia and Moravia. Due in part, to the protests of the governments of England and Holland, the decree was dropped everywhere but in Prague.
1766 PRAYERS FOR SABBATH, ROSH-HASHANAH, AND KIPPUR
The first complete siddur (prayer book) in English was published by Isaac Pinto. Pinto (1720-1791), who also translated it from the Hebrew, was a learned merchant who had come from the west indies in 1751. He was a member of Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue, and active in supporting the colonial cause against the British.
1865 April 14, PRESIDENT ABRAHAM LINCOLN (1809-1865) (USA)
Was assassinated. Lincoln was the first President to deal with national Jewish problems, including the appointment of Jewish Chaplains in the U.S. Army and his involvement with the expulsion order of Ulysses S. Grant. (see 1862)
1920 March 21, PRESIDENT HARDING (USA)
Pushed Congress to limit immigration. This had a direct effect on Jewish immigration prior to and during World War II.
1891 March 5, PRESIDENT HARRISON (USA)
Was presented with a petition by prominent non-Jews requesting an international conference to consider and bring to a just conclusion the Jewish claims to Eretz Israel.
1945 August 31, PRESIDENT HARRY S.TRUMAN (USA)
In reaction to the Harrison Report, President Truman severely criticized the conditions of the DP's and contended that his policies "are not being carried out." In addition, he urged the British government to grant 100,000 immigration permits to the DP's in Germany. It was also decided to arrange for Jews to live in separate camps with the
Joint providing additional rations.
1922 June, PRESIDENT OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY, A.L. LOWELL (USA)
During a commencement exercise he advocated the use of quotas against Jewish college applicants. Though he was forced to retract his statement, a precedent had been set and the quota system rapidly gained acceptance in American universities.
1942 November, PRESIDENT RAMON CASTILLO (Argentina)
Agreed under pressure to accept 1,000 French Jewish children. The government (ostensibly neutral) refused to put the plan into operation.
1942 September 26, PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT
Sent his representative Myron Taylor, to the Vatican to discuss the destruction of Polish Jewry, and to ask for practical advice as how to prevent " the continuation of this barbarism" A month later on October 10 the Vatican, through Cardinal Luigi Maglione the Vatican Secretary of State, replied that reports of "measures against non Aryans have come to the Holy Seeâ€¦but at present it has not been possible to verify their accuracy".
1942 December 8, PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT (USA)
After submitting to friendly pressure by Stephen Wise, who stated that refusal to meet with them may be "gravely misunderstood," met with Jewish leaders of the Temporary Committee for half an hour. Roosevelt spoke 80% of the time and mostly about issues unrelated to the plight of the Jews. After hearing the evidence he confirmed its veracity, stating the U.S. was "well acquainted with most of the facts." Despite his acknowledgement of the planned annihilation of European Jewry his only concession was to agree issue a war crimes warning. The entire holocaust part of the conversation lasted less then two minutes. This was his only meeting with Jewish leaders concerning the Holocaust. His only other meeting to discuss the issue was with 7 Jewish congressmen on April 1 1943.
1913 PRESIDENT TAFT (USA)
Under pressure from Congress, he abrogated the Russian Treaty of 1832 on the grounds of Russian discrimination and persecution of the Jews.
1946 October 4, PRESIDENT TRUMAN (USA)
In his holiday message on Yom Kippur Eve, President Truman announced his support for partition and the setting up of the Jewish state.
1946 October 28, PRESIDENT TRUMAN (USA)
Confirmed in a letter to King Ibn Saud that he supported the establishment of a Jewish "National home".
1917 June 14, PRESIDENT WILSON
Was presented with an updated Blackstone memorial petition (see 1891) by Louis Brandeis and Rabbi Stephen Wise. They hoped he would endorse American Zionism and the soon to be presented British Balfour Declaration. The Memorial, though presented only privately, was very effective in gaining his support.
1918 September 5, PRESIDENT WILSON
On the eve of Rosh Hashanah, publicly announced his support for the Balfour declaration. He had already agreed to the idea the previous October both in meetings with Louis Brandies and Stephen Wise, and in cables to the British government. However, due to pressure by Secretary of state Robert Lansing and non-Zionists like Henry Morgenthau, he had refused to make it public.
1914 PRESIDENT WILSON (USA)
Vetoed the anti-immigration bill. This bill, part of the growing anti-immigration feelings in the country, had been brought up as far back as 1882. In 1897 President Cleveland vetoed it, as did Taft in 1913. Each time it was sustained by a narrower margin until 1917 when the bill finally passed despite Wilson's veto. There were decided anti-Jewish insinuations in much of the lobbying.
At the city councils request, the Jews were expelled.
1929 October 10, PRICES COLLAPSE ON THE NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE (USA)
The Jewish community, which relied heavily on contributions, had to retrench, cutting back on essential services to orphanages, synagogues and schools. Discrimination in the form of job rejections became commonplace. The Depression led to a hiatus in immigration to the USA and pressure on the government to apply immigration quotas. The Depression was world-wide and encouraged the growth of both communism and fascism. In Germany it led directly to the rise of the Nazi party.
1945 September 16, PRIME MINISTER ATLEE (Britain)
Rejected Truman's request to allow the admission of 100,000 refugees into Eretz Israel. A few days later, (September 21), the British cabinet decided that despite previous promises, "Palestine" was to become a country with an Arab majority. Jewish immigration was to be limited to 18,000 Jews a year.
1941 March 25, PRIME MINISTER DRAGISA CVETKOVIC (Yugoslavia)
With the (albeit) reluctant agreement of Prince Paul, Yugoslavia agreed to join forces
with Germany. As soon as the capitulation became known, a bloodless coup led
by General Bora Mirkovik and King Peter II took over the government. The
Germans retaliated by a full scale invasion. The Germans had to postpone
their invasion of Russia for the five weeks it took to subdue Yugoslavia
thus forcing them to contend with the Russian winter.
1936 June 4, PRIME MINISTER FELICJAN SLAWOJ-SKLADKOWSKI (Poland)
Endorsed an "economic war" against the Jews
1919 - 1987 PRIMO LEVI (Italy)
During the war Levi joined the partisans, but was captured and deported to Auschwitz. After the war he began to write about his experience, becoming a leading figure in 20th century literature. His works include If This is a Man, The Truce, and If Not Now, When?. Levi was a detached but passionate writer who constantly warned that only alertness can prevent a repeat of the Holocaust. Levi committed suicide in 1987.
1506 August 9, PRINCE FEODOR YAROSLAVITCH (Lithuania)
Established the community of Pinsk. At the same time, he reconfirmed the rights given to the Jews by King Alexander Jagello, king of Lithuania/Poland. By the beginning of the 18th century Jews became the majority of the town and remained such until July 4, 1941 when the Germans entered the city. The final "aktion", which took place on Oct. 28, 1942, left alive only 150 artisans, who were killed a few months later.
1917 March 26, PRINCE G.E. LVOV (Russia)
The first Prime Minister (and minister of the Interior) in the provisional government, sent a message to the Alliance Israelite Universelle promising that Russia would respect the beliefs and varied natures of its people. On that same day in Petrograd, a conference of Russian Jews was held which tried to find common ground in post-czarist Russia.
1320 PRINCE GEDIMIN (1277-1341) (LITHUANIA)
Founded Vilna and made it his capital. He then brought a number Jews to live there. Although a real Jewish presence would not find its way to Lithuania until the end of the century (1389) and the rule of Grand Duke Witold.
1681 PRINCESS ANNE ( England)
The future queen visited a London synagogue in Creechurch lane (later to evolve into the Bevis Marks synagogue). Making Anne ( 1665-1714) the first member of the royal family to visit a synagogue ,since before the expulsion of 1290.
1493 PRINTING PRESS ( Istanbul)
Within one year of the expulsion from Spain , David & Samuel ibn Nahmias brought in printing press making it the first Hebrew printing press in Istanbul.
1933 PRIOR TO THIS YEAR
Eleven of the thirty-eight Germans to win the Nobel Prize and three of the six Austrians were Jewish.
581 PRISCUS (Gaul)
The royal jeweler to Chilper I (Gaul) was forced into a debate with Gregory of Tours, a respected Christian theologian. Despite the fact that the king also put pressure on Priscus, he held his own and even Gregory conceded that the debate ended without a winner. The king tried forcing Priscus to convert together with other Jews. When that failed, Priscus was imprisoned and then murdered by Phatir, a recent convert. Phatir was granted a royal pardon, but was killed within a few days by Priscus' relatives.
1247 PROCLOMATION OF PROTECTION (Kingdom Of Aragon)
King James I (1208-1276) offered the Jews protection and privileges in many areas of his country, mostly in those re-conquered. This led to a flowering of culture and participation within his realm. One of those who held high office was Judah ben Lavi de la Caballeria, who from 1257 to 1276, was in charge of the administration of the property of the king and judicial matters. A little over 210 years later one of his decedents Alfonso de la Caballeria , a ”new Christian”, served as vice-chancellor of Aragon and a strong supporter of Columbus.
1590 PROHIBITION OF BUYING RABBINICAL POSITIONS ( Poland)
Was proclaimed by a number of leading polish rabbis including Moses Mat (1551-1606). Mat also is recognized for his Matteh Moshe ("Staff of Moses"), a compendium of Jewish ritual law.
1456 May 18, PROHIBITION OF JEWS TO TESTIFY AGAINST A CHRISTIAN
In the bull Si ad Reprimendos (If He Is Preventing…) Pope Calixtus III(1378- 1458) prohibited Jews from testifying against Christians, but permitted Christians to testify against a Jew.rnrn
1593 February 28, PROHIBITION OF OWNING A TALMUD
Despite efforts by Italian Jews to self- expunge the Talmud of any anti- Christian sentiment, Pope Clement VIII issued his bull Cum Haebraeorum malitia reaffirming the ban against owning or even reading the Talmud.
1839 PROPOSAL TO MOHAMMED ALI
Moses Montefiore proposed to Mohammed Ali (1769-1849) the setting up of Jewish agricultural settlement. He was supported by Rabbi Mordechai Tsoref Salomon (1812-1866) of Jerusalem who wished to establish a place for those “less gifted at study”, and where they could practice the agricultural “laws of the land”. There was strong opposition by sectors of the Perushim (descendants of the disciples of the Vilna Gaon) community. Ali turned down the proposal. Tsoref was the father of Yoel Moshe Solomon who helped create the Nakhalat Shiv'a ("the homestead of the seven") neighborhood (see Yoel Moshe Solomon).
1432 February 8, PROTECTION FOR THE JEWS
Pope Eugene IV (1383 -1447) issued a bull against forced baptism and disturbance of synagogues and graveyards. The same Pope demanded the complete separation of Jews and Christians (see 1442).
1517 PROTESTANT REVOLUTION BEGINS
Broke the Roman Catholic hegemony over Europe.
1903 August 26, PROTOCOLS OF THE ELDERS OF ZION (Russia)
An abbreviated version of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion appeared in the Russian language paper Znamia (The Banner). The full version appeared two years later.
1788 PRUSSIA (Germany)
The poll-tax was lifted from the Jews.
1812 March 11, PRUSSIAN JEWS WERE GRANTED CIVIL RIGHTS (Germany)
Chancellor Karl August von Hardenburg with the approval of king Frederick William III (1770-1840) announced the full rights being extended to Jews of the Prussian Monarchy. Jews were still not allowed to be appointed to judicial and administrative offices. One of the other directives was that Jews now had to adopt family names. This directly led to the publishing of David Friedlander’s call for a radical change in synagogue service, including substituting German for Hebrew, and deleting most references of the destruction of out “ancient homeland”. “Prussia is out fatherland and German is out mother-tongue (Muttersprache)”
1943 January 27, PRUZANA (Pruzhany, Belarus)
In a surprise visit to the Judenrat, the Gestapo ran into two members of the resistance who were meeting with Yitzchak Janowicz. The members of the Judenrat helped them escape, although their watchman was killed. In retaliation, over the next four days, the entire Jewish population of about 10,000 was sent to Auschwitz.
1559 March 29, PRZEMYSL (Poland)
King Sigismund II granted the Jews a charter despite opposition from the local authorities.
1630 March 14, PRZEMYSL (Poland)
Moses the Braider, a Jewish merchant, was accused of conspiring to desecrate the host and was burned alive.
C. 370 PSEUDO GREGORY OF NYSSA
Often confused with St Gregory, wrote Testimonies against the Jews,. In it he emphasizes gods rejection of the Jews, and the obsolescence of Jewish law.
1783 March, PUBLICATION OF NETIVOT HASHALOM (PATHS OF PEACE)
A translation and commentary on the Pentateuch. The work itself also became known as the Bi'ur (Explanation). It was initiated by Moses Mendelssohn who only succeeded in writing a commentary on Exodus. Others including Naphtali Herz Wessely Aaron Jaroslav and Hertz Homberg who carried on the work, became known as the Biurists. Solomon Dubno who wrote the commentary on Genesis, resigned after many in the orthodox community issued a ban against its use. The orthodox rabbis feared that it would encourage Jews to study the secular (German) texts rather than the Torah and Jewish sources.
786 PUENTE CASTRO (near Leon, Spain)
One of the oldest tombstones in Spain attests to the existence of a significant Jewish community in northern Spain. "The tomb of Mar (anrnimportant title) Jacob bar Rabbi Isaac who was murdered... in his 45thrnyear" was written on it. A number of other tombstones were found in the samernarea.rn
416 PURIM (INMESTAR, SYRIA)
Jews were allegedly accused that during their revelry of the Purim holiday they " mistreated ( a Christian boy) until he died". The incident was only reported by one church historian Socrates Scholasticus and totally ignored by all others for hundreds of years. It is only in 1150 that it was revived and embellished by Thomas of Monmouth who claimed that it was not drunkenness, but actually part of a Jewish ritual in his book, The life, and miracles of St William of Norwich (see 1150).
1524 February 24, (27 Adar 5284) PURIM CAIRO (Egypt)
Celebration of the deliverance from the self-proclaimed Sultan Ahmed Shaitan. The Sultan, upset with being rejected as Grand Vizier, ordered his Jewish coinager, Abraham de Castro, to print his likeness and title of Grand Vizier on coins. When De Castro fled, the Sultan got his revenge by ordering the Jewish community to choose between paying a massive fine or being killed. On the last day before the Sultan's edict would have been enforced, he was assassinated by one of his viziers.
1669 (8 Iyar 5429) PURIM CHIOS (Aegean Island)
The Venetian armies' attack on the island, which had a sizeable number of Jews, was beaten off. In commemoration, the local Jews instituted an annual celebration.
1449 June 5, PURITY OF BLOOD Limpieza de Sangre TOLEDO (Spain)
In the aftermath of the converso trial in January of that year, the council decided not to allow New Christians to hold any public office. The Sentencia-Estatuto de Toledo, composed by its mayor Pedro Sarmiento, states" " all the said conversos descended from the perverse line of the Jews, in whatever situation they may be...." This is considered by many to be the earliest reference to Jewish blood rather than Jewish faith and the first example of racial rather than religious discrimination. Pope Nicholas V condemned the decision, claiming that all Catholics constitute one body.