1945 March 25, NARODOWE SILY ZBROJOWE (NSZ) (Poland)
A fascist organization announced that it is a patriotic duty to kill Jews.
1933 April 11, NICHTARIER ("non-Aryan") (Germany)
Became a legal classification, known as the Arierparagraph (Aryan Clause). According to this, anyone who had a Jewish grandparent was considered Jewish even if the person had converted. This made it "legal" to discharge Jews from their position in the universities, hospitals, and legal professions. In some countries under later NAZI occupation (Italy, Bulgaria, etc.) this definition was modified so that it didn't include the children of converts or converts who were married to local Christians.
1785 - 1840 NACHMAN KROCHMAL (Galicia)
Tried to formulate a philosophy of Jewish history. He wrote the Guide for the Perplexed in Our Times. He endeavored to explain a Jewish philosophy of history using the mission theory. Together with Leopold Zunz he was part of the Wissenschaft des Judentums(The scientific investigation of Judaism/Hohmat Israel) movement which endeavored to study Judaism through modern methods of research.
1265 NACHMANIDES (Spain)
Was convicted for publishing his side of the debate with Pablo Christiani. Although Nachmanides was not severely punished by the King, he decided to leave Spain for good and settled in Eretz Israel.
1267 August 15, (9 Elul 5027) NACHMANIDES ARRIVED IN JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)
Upon his arrival, seven years after the Tatar invasion, Nachmanides found "only two brothers, dyers who bought their dye from the governor and were joined by up to ten Jews in their home on Sabbaths for prayers." He reorganized the Jewish community and founded a yeshiva and synagogue.
1943 November 3, NACHUM REMBA
Was murdered in Majdanek. Remba a community worker in Warsaw, had decided to established a fake First Aid Station right next to the umschlagplatz. He wore a doctors coat and called himself the hospital director and together with others including medical personnel he would brazenly take people out of the line, telling the Germans that they were too sick for the journey and then send them back to the ghetto wearing fake bandages. The Germans could not conceive that it was all an act and although Remba had absolutely no medical training he managed to save hundreds . He was caught during the uprising and himself deported.
1736 - 1747 NADIR SHAH (Persia)
For a brief period Jews in Persia experienced a period of tolerance and even growth. With his assassination and the ascension of the Zand and Qajar dynasties (1796 -1926), their position severely deteriorated.
1921 September 11, NAHALAL (Eretz Israel)
The first moshav was established in the Jezreel Valley.
1772 - 1811 (18 Tishrei 5571) NAHMAN BRESLOV “Bratslaver” (Medzhybizh –Uman, Ukraine
Simply known as Rebbi Nachman. He was the great-grandson of the Besht (the Baal Shem Tov). Nahman forged new , if controversial ideas regarding Hasidut. He strongly believed in the principle of the Tzaddik Hador (holy person of the generation) and Hibodedut (self-seclusion) in prayer. He also promoted the importance of confession to the Rebbe, but seems to have dropped it near the end of his life. He was against the developing dynastic concept in the Hasidic world. Nahman was opposed even within the Hasidic world, mainly by Rabbi Aryeh Leib of Shpola (1725–1812) aka the "Shpoler Zeide". None of his sons survived him. His works included Likutey Moharan (Collected Teachings of Our Teacher), Tikkun HaKlali (General Remedy), and Sippurei Ma'asiyot (Tales of Rabbi Nachman). Many of his works were edited by his disciple Nathan Sternhartz, who also wrote his biography Chayey Moharan.
1868 - 1924 NAHMAN SYRKIN (Belarus - USA)
Writer and early leader of Socialist Zionism, he organized the Poale Zion
(Zionist Labor Party - 1903). His ideals of socialism was one of morality
rather then Marxism. Syrkin was a strong supporter of Herzl's Uganda
scheme and temporarily left the Zionist movement. He immigrated to the United States in 1907 and became active in the American Jewish Congress and a member of the Jewish Delegation to the Paris Peace Conference. He returned to the Zionist movement heading the Poale Zion until his death.
1895 - 1982 NAHUM GOLDMANN (Lithuania-Germany-USA)
Jewish and Zionist leader. Goldmann was very involved early on in Zionist activities. After World War II he choose not to live in Israel, a move for which he was much criticized. Despite his personal separation of Zionism from living in Israel, he served in senior positions in the World Zionist Organization. Goldmann was a key player in the reparation agreements between Germany and Israel. He was active in the World Jewish Congress serving as its president until 1977. He was also was instrumental in the publication of the Encyclopedia Judaica.
1828 - 1903 NAHUM SALOMON (Coventry, England)
Inventor, first manufacturer of bicycles, and the man who introduced the sewing machine to England. He also helped to develop the saccharin industry.
1925 August 7, NAHUM SHTIF ESTABLISHED YIVO (Yiddish Scientific Institute, Yidisher Visenshaftlikher Institut)
As a Yiddish academic institute with its center in Vilna. Its goal was to promote scholarly research in Yiddish, especially on Jewish life and history in Eastern Europe. In addition, it standardized Yiddish spelling and gathered thousands of documents on Jewish culture and folklore from over much of Europe.
1859 - 1936 NAHUM SOKOLOW (Poland-England)
Articulate and versatile essayist and publicist. During the 1930s he headed the Jewish Agency and the World Zionist Organization. He was also editor of Hatsefirah and published a history of Zionism, which mainly dealt with the period from 1917-1920. His Hebrew translation of Herzl's Altneuland was entitled Tel Aviv, which subsequently became the name of the first new Jewish city in Eretz Israel. Sokolow collaborated with Weizmann in London to negotiate the Balfour Declaration and its acceptance by Britain's allies.
1878 NAPHTALI HERZ IMBER (1856-1909)(Jassy, Romania)
Wrote a poem Tikvatenu ("Our Hope"). That same year Samuel Cohen, set it to the music of a Moldavian-Rumanian folk song, Carul cu Boi ("Cart and Oxen"). By 1905 it had become the unofficial anthem of the Zionist congress. Hatikvah became the official anthem at the 18th Zionist Congress in Prague in 1933.
1725 - 1805 NAPHTALI HERZ WESSELY (Germany)
Poet, contributor to the HaMeassef and leader of the Haskalah (Enlightenment - Reformers) Movement.
1817 - 1893 (28 Av 5453) NAPHTALI ZEVI YEHUDA BERLIN (the Netziv) (Belorus, Russia)
Head of the Volozhin Yeshiva, which grew to over 400 students during his time. He was both a scholar and an organizer, and the yeshiva reached its zenith under his guidance. His works include Emek Davar, a commentary on the Torah, and Emek Hanatziv, a commentary on the Sifri. He was among the first religious leaders to encourage weekly study of the Torah portion. He joined the Hovevei Zion movement, which urged Orthodox Jews to support settlement in Eretz Israel. In 1892 the Russian government closed his yeshiva, and he felt that his place was with his community despite his great desire to go to Eretz Israel. His health rapidly deteriorated and he died shortly after.
1510 November 23, NAPLES (Italy)
The Jews were expelled. Fifteen years earlier the Spanish had conquered the island and within a year had issued an order for the banishment of all Jews, which was never carried out. Now the community, which had existed since Roman times, was forced out. The only Jews remaining were the "New Christians" (who were to be expelled 5 years later) and 200 wealthy families, who paid a new annual tax for such tolerance.
1806 July 26, NAPOLEON (France)
Formed the Conference of Notables to deal with the relationship of the Jews and the French State. It consisted of 112 deputies from all parts of the French empire. At the assembly, which was led by the financier Abraham Furtado and Rabbi Joseph David Sinzheim, the delegates were confronted with a questionnaire on polygamy, usury, loyalty, and intermarriage. Pleased with their answers, Napoleon decided to re-establish the Sanhedrin under his careful direction, with representatives from all congregations. Even though the assembly was to be held on the Sabbath (some claim this was a loyalty litmus test), they decided to attend and not risk the wrath of the Emperor.
1812 NAPOLEON (France)
Began his Russian campaign. Hasidim in Russia debated whether supporting Napoleon against the Czar would speed up the coming of the Messiah. In Western Europe many of the civil restrictions on the Jews fell wherever Napoleon conquered, although this did not take place in Russia.
1799 February 25, NAPOLEON CAPTURED GAZA (Eretz- Israel)
This was his first encounter with "Palestinian" Jews. It is said that he offered "the re-establishment of ancient Jerusalem" as a Jewish homeland in return for Jewish loyalty.
1870 July 19, NAPOLEON III (France)
Declared war on Prussia (Franco-Prussian War). A number of Jews, including Jules Moch and Leopold See, attained high rank in the French army. See later became Secretary general of the Ministry of the Interior. The war also marked the beginning of Rabbis serving as chaplains in the German army. After the War the region of Alsace and part of Lorraine became annexed to Germany. Many Jewish families preferred to emigrate rather than be under German rule.
1870 NAPOLEON III (France)
Resigned his throne and Adolphe Cremieux, a great defender of individual liberty, helped start a provisional government.
1815 June 8, NAPOLEON'S DEFEAT AT WATERLOO, CONGRESS OF VIENNA
The immediate effect on the Jews of Napoleon's deposition was a return to their previous lack of freedom. At the Vienna Congress, Jews sent a Christian attorney, Carl Buchortz, to act on their behalf. An agreement was reached whereby "Jews were given rights in proportion to accepting the duties of citizenship." This was the first time that Jewish rights became a European political issue.
1799 April 20, NAPOLEON’S LETTER TO THE JEWISH NATION ( Eretz Israel)
As reported by Le Moniteur Napoleon called for Jews, as its “ rightful heirs”, to join him in freeing “Palestine”. Thus becoming the first (soon to be head of state) to propose the re-establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel.
759 NARBONNE (Carolingian Empire)
Moorish occupation ended after just 39 years. During this brief time the Jewish population greatly increased. They played a pivotal role in the formal occupation of the city by Charlemagne, who granted them 1/3 of the town under their own ruler (Nasi).
1236 February 29, NARBONNE (France)
An attack on the Jewish quarter occurred after a Jew accidentally killed a Gentile in an argument. The governor of the city, Don Amyeric, forcibly re-established order. The house and library of Rabbi Meir ben Isaac were pillaged, but no one was killed.
589 NARBONNE (Gaul)
The Council forbade Jews from chanting Psalms while burying their dead. Anyone violating this law was fined 6 ounces of gold. In addition all Jews married to Christian woman had to baptize their children.
1653 NATHAN BEN MOSHE HANNOVER (Italy)
Published Yeven Metzolah (Pit of Mire) based on eyewitness accounts of the Chmielniki pogroms. It was translated into many languages, including English ("Abyss of Despair", 1950).
1035 - 1106 NATHAN BEN YECHIEL (Rome, Italy)
Author of the Aruch (order), a lexicon of Hebrew. He explained the translations, various interpretations and difficulties surrounding words taken from the entire Bible, Talmud, Midrash and Targums in Hebrew and Aramaic. He was frequently quoted by Rashi (see 1040).
1864 May 16, - 1937 NATHAN BIRNBAUM (Mathias Acher) (Austria)
Philosopher and early Zionist leader. Although Birnbaum left orthodoxy at a young age, his direction moved into Jewish Nationalism rather than assimilation. He formed Kadimah, a nationalist students organization in 1882 and became one of Herzl's strong supporters. Three years later, he founded and edited the first Jewish nationalist journal in German, Selbstemanzipation, where the term Zionism was first used in a modern sense. He left active Zionist affairs in 1903 over a disagreement on the negation of the Diaspora, and advocated Diaspora nationalism and Yiddish along with Zionism. In the aftermath of WWI he became active in religious organizations becoming the general secretary of Agudat Israel (1919). He wrote numerous articles delineating his religious philosophy of trying to "create the new Jew, based in the Torah, near to nature and to God".
1777 - 1836 NATHAN MEYER ROTHSCHILD (Germany-England)
Famous for his Waterloo scoop in which he used carrier pigeons between England and Belgium to gain knowledge of the victory before anyone else. He expanded his father's bank into a world-wide firm.
1804 NATHAN THE WISE (Germany)
A play by Gotthold Lessing (see 1729) was produced in Germany. Lessing was said to have used his friend, Moses Mendelssohn, as his role model. The play preached toleration.
1808 - C. 1860 NATHANIEL ISAACS (South Africa)
Explorer. While on a rescue mission in 1825 he was shipwrecked in Port Natal. Isaacs served as the spokesman for those who were shipwrecked with the Zulu king, Tchaka, who regularly used torture and execution as a method of rule. Isaacs succeeded in gaining the King's trust, even leading a war party for Tchaka's benefit. In the process he was named Tamboosa (brave warrior) by the king. He spent the next seven years teaching the Zulus to raise cattle and sugar cane, while encouraging trade with the British. He urged the British to annex the territory. He left after seven years at the age of 24.
1893 NATIONAL COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN (USA)
Was created by German Jews to protect immigrant girls from white slave traders. Founded by Hannah Solomon, it also established educational, social, and cultural services for women. It was the first national women's Jewish organization in the United States.
1944 October 28, NATIONAL REVOLT (Slovakia)
Approximately 2,500 Jews, including a parachutist from Eretz Israel, joined to try to help organize the revolt. The Germans used this as the alleged reason for the deportation of most of the 13,500 Slovakian Jews who were left. The rebels succeeded in liberating two labor camps, Sered and Novaky, before the rebellion was put down and they had to escape to the mountains.
1923 NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS’ PARTY (Nazi Party) (Germany)
Won 800,000 votes. Less than 10 years later, they won 14 million votes..
733 NATRONAI BAR HAVIVAI
Who had been passed over to be the next Exilarch decided leave Sura and eventually settled in Spain. There Natronai ( c.699-c733) began to introduce the Talmud to the local Jews , writing it down from memory. This became the basis for the development of Jewish scholarship in Spain which freed them from having to wait up to two years for an answer to come from Babylon regarding a point of Jewish law. . By the mid 9th century a request was made to the Gaon Paltoi bar Abaye for a corrected and exact version of the Talmud to which he complied. The Spanish edition of the Talmud became known as the most reliable version.
859 - 869 NATRONAI II (Babylon)
Served as Gaon of Sura. He extrapolated the theory of a divine Torah (Bible) given at Mount Sinai without vowel signs, which were later developed as a reading aid. He also began the custom of saying one hundred brachot (blessings) daily, and he completed the order of the daily prayers.
1753 NATURALIZATION ACT (England)
This legislation allowed Jews to own land and to "prefer bills in parliament without receiving the sacrament." The enactment was protested by mobs and pamphleteers calling it the end of Christianity in England and giving lie to the prophesies of the New Testament which implies that Jews must wander the earth. In the end, it was repealed the next year and was only re-enacted over a hundred years later in 1858.
1740 June 1, NATURALIZATION ACT (North American Colonies)
Also known as the Plantation Act,passed, making it possible for a Jew in any of Britain's American colonies to become naturalized. However, it was not always implemented (i.e. in Rhode Island). Between 1740 and the American Revolutionary War, around 200 Jews were naturalized, most of them in Jamaica, a British colony since 1670.rnrn
1328 March 5, NAVARRE (France)
After the death of Charles the Fair (Charles IV), Philip's brother and successor, Pedro Olligoyen, a Franciscan friar, used the Jews as a scapegoat against French rule. Charles was the last of the French Capet dynasty which had inherited Navarre. Local militias tried to defend the Jews but were outnumbered. All Jewish houses were pillaged then destroyed. Approximately 6000 Jews were murdered. There were 20 survivors. Those that took part were fined but the fines were later cancelled.
1943 September 9, NAZI GERMANY OCCUPIES ZAKYNTHOS GREECE
Their first act was to ask to a list of all the Jews. The mayor Loukas Karrer and the Metropolitan Bishop Chrysostomos replied by returning a paper with only their names on it. The 275 Jews were dispersed into the local villages until the Germans left in October 1944. No Jew was deported. They were honored by Yad Vashem in 1978 with the title of "Righteous among the Nations. Statues of the Bishop and the Mayor celebrate their heroism on the site of the town’s historic synagogue, destroyed in the Earthquake of 1953
985 NEAR EAST
In Eretz Israel, Syria and Persia, the Jews are reported to be engaged as dyers, tanners, cobblers, butchers and bankers while the Christians were the scribes and physicians.
1011 December 31, NEAR RIOTS IN EGYPT
A local mob attacked a Jewish funeral procession, arresting 23 people and threatening them with death. The incident was brought to the attention to the Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah “ The Mad Caliph” who had previous persecuted the Jews. He ordered them release and their possessions returned. The Jews in gratitude instituted a holiday on the fifth of the month of Shevat to honor the Caliph.
1881 - 1920 NEARLY THREE MILLION JEWS (USA)
Arrived in the United States, mostly from Eastern Europe.
259 NEHARDEA (Babylon)
The Jewish community and academy were destroyed by Odenathus of Palmyra while fighting for Rome against the Persians. The academy then moved to Pumbedita. These two foundations ruled Jewish life for approximately 800 years.
1650 - 1726 NEHEMIA HAYYUN (Holland)
Kabbalist imposter and Sabbatian. His theory on the trinity caused an uproar in the Amsterdam community. He was supported by Salamon Ayllon and opposed by Haham Zevi.
1610 December 24, NETHERLAND AND MOROCCAN
Commercial treaty was signed. Much of it was sue to the efforts of Samuel Pallache the diplomat/pirate (1550) . This was one of the first treaties signed between a Christian and Moslem country.
1941 February 25, NETHERLANDS
A general strike which included cutting off electricity and gas was called in Amsterdam to protest German anti-Jewish actions. Three battalions of police and one of Deaths Head Verbande (Organization) were brought in and the strike ended the next day. Sixty Dutch workers were deported to concentration camps.
1940 May 14, NETHERLANDS FALLS
Just four days after the German invasion and one day after Queen Wilhelmina fled to London, the country surrendered to the Germans. Arthur Seyss-Inquart, an Austrian lawyer who had played an important role in the Anschluss, was appointed Reich commissioner. Almost all of Holland's Jews lived in three cities with 60% in Amsterdam alone, making it very easy for the Germans to concentrate their efforts. Out of Holland's 140,000 Jews, 80% would perish in the Holocaust. Seyss-Inquart was later hung after the Nuremberg trials.
1664 September, NEW AMSTERDAM (North American Colonies)
Was occupied by the British and its name changed to New York. The rights won by the Jews under Dutch rule were preserved, although they were still not allowed to join a guild or engage in retail trade. Each colony was free to decide which rights to grant the Jews. In many cases they were even less then those granted in England.
1499 April 21, NEW CHRISTIANS (Portugal)
Were forbidden to leave Portugal, including those who had been forcibly baptized.
1643 NEW ECONOMIC POLICIES ( Poland)
The Warsaw Diet legislated the rate of profit that can be made on merchandise. Christians 7% foreigners 5% and Jews 3%.
1938 April 26, NEW RESTRICTIONS (Germany)
A law was passed that all Jewish assets with a value of over five thousand reichsmark ($2,000) per person had to be declared. This eventually led to the seizure of all Jewish property.
1887 NEW RESTRICTIONS (Russia)
Although Jews were forcibly conscripted into the army, they were banned from all military schools. This was soon followed by Jews being prohibited from joining the army medical corps and military bands. At the same time, Jewish communities were severely fined if the quota of Jewish conscripts wasn't reached. In addition, new education restrictions were instituted: no more than ten percent of Jews in the Pale and five percent outside the Pale were allowed to attend University.
395 NEW TESTAMENT
1727 NEW YORK (North American Colonies)
General Assembly took out the phrase "upon the true faith of a Christian" from the oath of allegiance for naturalization.
1728 December 17, NEW YORK (North American Colonies)
Land is purchased for the first synagogue to be built in the United States, Shearit Israel. The oldest synagogue still standing is Touro in Newport Rhode Island (see 1763).
1860 NEW YORK (USA)
There were 17 active synagogues in the city.
1872 NEW YORK (USA)
Discrimination against Jews began in what is now City College of New York.
1876 NEW YORK (USA)
Abraham Goldfaden established the Yiddish theater.
1927 June 21, NEW YORK (USA)
Three Jewish interns at Kings County Hospital were attacked and tied up.
1945 April 29, NEW YORK (USA)
60,000 people attended a mass rally calling for the establishment of a Jewish state. There were 88 rallies held all over the United States in preparation for the San Francisco Conference of the United Nations.
1933 March 27, NEW YORK CITY PROTEST (USA)
Against the Nazi regime brought out over 50,000 people.
1935 September 12, NEW ZIONIST ORGANIZATION
Was founded in Vienna by Ze'ev Jabotinsky. For many years there was tension between the World Zionist Organization and the Revisionist Party. Some of it was the result of tactical differences, including the expansion of the Jewish Agency to include non-Zionists. In addition, there was still strong resentment and political tensions in the aftermath of the Arlosoroff murder, which had initially been blamed on the Revisionists. The actual break came with a resolution to prohibit any independent political activity of Zionist organizations. Eleven years later they rejoined the World Zionist Organizaton.
1658 NEWPORT, RHODE ISLAND (North American Colonies)
Fifteen Jewish families from Holland were accepted in what was then the most important port on the northeast Atlantic coast.
1878 NIAGARA BIBLE CONFERENCE (Ontario, Canada)
A conference of evangelical Christians published the Niagara creed, which included the belief that the Jews must first be returned to the land of Israel before there could be a second coming.
1240 June 25, NICHOLAS DONIN (France)
A renegade Jew under the patronage of Louis IX. He convinced Pope Gregory IX to confiscate the Talmud on the grounds that it was anti-Christian. A debate ensued with Rabbi Yehiel of Paris and three other Rabbis speaking in defense of the Talmud. Rabbi Yehiel wasn't allowed to counterattack or take the offensive in his argument.
1894 - 1917 NICHOLAS II (Russia)
Last of the Russian Czars. Nicholas was extremely anti-semitic. He continued Alexander III's policies against the Jews and carried them one step further by commissioning Sergei Nilus, a monk, to write something which would arouse hatred of the Jews. The result of this was the infamous Protocols of the Elders of Zion (see 1905). A weak ruler, he was influenced by everyone around him: Mescherski (editor of a Slavophilist newspaper), Pobednostav and especially his wife, Princess Alix (Alexandra Fedorovna.)
1917 March 15, NICHOLAS II ABDICATED
The next day the Pale of Settlement was abolished.
1939 March 14, NICHOLAS WINTON (Wertheim) (England)
Arranged for a transport of Jewish children to leave for London the day before the German occupation of Czechoslovakia. Winton a London stockbroker founded an organization to help Jewish children flee to England before the holocaust. He helped save at least 669 children. He petitioned President Roosevelt but was never answered. His last group of 250 were supposed to leave Prague on September 1. Only two survived the war.
1517 - 1583 NICOLAS DE NICOLAY (France)
Soldier, cartographer, and spy. In 1551, he joined the second expedition sent by King Henry II of France (1519 – 1559) to the Ottoman Empire. He returned with over 800 drawings of sites, cities, islands, ports, castles and fashion, and was appointed “Géographe et valet de chambre du roi” (Geographer and Valet to the Chamber of the King). In 1565 he was asked by Catherine de’ Medici, Henry’s widow, to prepare a description of the provinces of the French kingdom. He is also believed to have also made a terrestrial globe.
1551 NICOLAS DE NICOLAY (France)
A French geographer and traveler reached Turkey. He bemoaned that Jews recently banished from Spain, have “taught the Turks inventions … and means of war... artillery, gun powder … and other weapons." Other visitors also commented on the number of Jews who brought their knowledge of weaponry to Turkey.
1885 - 1962 NIELS BOHR (Denmark)
Physicist and Nobel laureate. Developed the theory on the nature of the atom. During the Nazi occupation, he was rescued and taken to Sweden. The Allies were under pressure to take him to London so that he could work on the atom bomb project. Bohr refused to leave until he had a firm promise from King Gustav of Sweden to give sanctuary to any Danish Jew reaching his shore. Only once the agreement was made public did he agree to leave for London.
1454 November, NIESZAWA STATUTE (Poland)
Casimir IV revoked the Jewish charter, at the insistence of Bishop Zbignyev Oleshnitzki. The Cardinal had correctly "predicted" Casimir's defeat by the Teutonic Knights backed by the Pope, and succeeded in convincing the King that it was due to the Jews.
1946 June 17, NIGHT OF THE BRIDGES (Eretz Israel)
In a coordinated effort by the
Haganah, eleven bridges linking Eretz-Israel
to other countries were destroyed. North of Acre, 14 of the fighters died.
Kibbutz Gesher Haziv was established in their memory. The British reaction
came 12 days later on what would become known as Black Sabbath, with mass
arrests including members of the Jewish Agency executive.
1934 June 30, NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIVES (Germany)
Hitler ordered the execution of some of the SA (Sturmabteilung or "Stormtroopers") leaders whose absolute loyalty he questioned, including Ernst Roehm. Until that night the SS (Schutzstaffelor "defense echelon") under Himmler was subordinate to the SA. After that night the SS became independent and was put in charge of the concentration camps.
1945 November 1, NIGHT OF THE RAILWAYS (Eretz Israel)
In the first cooperative effort between the rnHaganah, rn Etzel, and Lehi, railroad tracks all over the country were blown up. This unification was known as Tnuat HaMeri Ha'ivri (The Hebrew (Jewish) Resistance Movement. The Haganah sabotaged railway tracks in 153 places throughout the country, as well as targets in Jaffa and Haifa ports. The Irgun-Lehi unit, commanded by Eitan Livni, attacked the main railway station at Lydda (Lod). The movement included two representatives of the Haganah (Yisrael Galili and Moshe Sneh), an Irgun delegate (Menahem Begin) and a rn Lehi delegate (Nathan Yellin-Mor). All operations were authorized by the Haganah command, which had the right of veto based on strategic, or political considerations.
1943 August 20, NIKOLAI KUZNETSOV (Rovno,Poland)
Killed General Gellen and his adjunct, Kuznetsov, who was well educated, spoke fluent German and spent a month training to pass as an East Prussian professional officer. He was so successful that he was able to infiltrate and assassinate many high ranking Nazi officials, including General Alfred Funnk who had been the Chief SS judge in the Czech Protectorate. He later became the commander of the Narodny Mstitel (Peoples Avengers) Brigade near Minsk.
655 November 2, NINTH COUNCIL OF TOLEDO
Ordered all converted Jews to spend all Jewish and Christian holidays in the presence of a bishop in order to prove their sincerity as a Christian.
1943 December 24, NINTH FORT (Kunas, Lithuania)
Considered almost escape proof, 64 Jews broke out on Christmas eve when most of the guards were celebrating. Most were caught in a massive manhunt by Germans and Lithuanian police. Only fourteen made it to the partisans.
1848 - 1931 Nissim Behar ( Eretz-Israel)
Educator and early Zionist activist. Behar studies in Paris being sent there by Adolf Crémieux who had met him in Constantinople. Behar studied under Ben Yehudah and is considered to be the foremost educator in reviving Hebrew as a modern language. He taught Hebrew at the Alliance Israélite Universelle and later became its director. Behar moved to New York in 1901 and was very active in promoting the Zionist idea.
1295 July 21, NISSIM BEN AVRAHAM (Castile, Spain)
Known as the prophet of Alvila,ׂ had predicted that the messiah would come on this date. Rabbi Solomon ben Aderet (see 1235) warned people against him but to little avail. Jews fasted and gathered in synagogues, and when nothing happened many converted. Unfortunately the troubles mounting in the Iberian peninsula would encourage other false messiahs looking for a both an explanation and a “solution”.
C. 990 - 1062 NISSIM BEN JACOB IBN SHAHIN (Kairouan, Tunisia)
Poet, and Halachic scholar aka Rabbenu Nissim. He was also very knowledgeable of philosophy and even Islamic religious literature. He served with Hanannel ben Hushiel and after his death, was appointed the head of the rabbinical academies. His Talmudic commentary Sefer Mafteach Manulei Hatalmud (The book of the Key to the Talmud) on some of the tractates is included on the main pages of many editions. In it he brings down sources for Mishnaic quotes and follows it methodology. and Megillat Setarim (Scroll of Secrets) which deals with questions regarding law, legends , Bible, Talmud, and religious customs. After his father in law lost his son, he composed (originally in Arabic) Hibur Yafe MehaYeshua (An Elegant Composition about Deliverance) comprised of stories from Talmudic, Gaonic, and foreign sources regarding bereavement.
1310 - C. 1375 NISSIM BEN REUBEN GERONDI (Rabbenu Nissim - the Ran) (Spain)
Talmudist, scholar and physician. He was recognized as one of the most authoritative halachic interpreters of his generation. His halachic commentary on Alfasi is considered a standard text. His commentary on Tractate Nedarim is printed together with the Talmud and is used instead of Rashi which is not extant for that section of the Talmud. The exact date of his death is unknown. It is presumed he died while being held captive in prison.
1066 NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND
Jews arrived in increasing numbers from Normandy to settle in London, and then spread in ever widening circles to York, Norwich, Oxford, Bristol, and Lincoln. The documented history of Jewish settlement in England dates from the Norman Conquest, although Jews were said to have arrived there soon after the conquest. They tended to settle in large towns and commercial centers, close to the royal castle for protection against the sheriff.
1650 - 1726 NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES
First wave of immigration. The Jewish population rose to ten thousand.
1689 - 1697 NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES
Fighting erupted between the English and French along the northern border of New York. One of the first Jews known to have fought under the British flag was Joseph Isacks. Isacks, a butcher from New York, was an active member of the synagogue until his death at age 78.
1871 April 16, NORTH GERMAN CONFEDERATION (Germany)
Extended the constitution over the entire federation. This ostensibly removed all limitations on civic and citizens rights.
1869 July 3, NORTH GERMAN CONFEDERATION WAS INITIATED (Prussia, Germany)
After the war of 1866 Prussia increased its territory to include Hanover, Hesse-Kassel, Saxony, etc. Under the initiative of the Liberal Party, full rights were extended to Jews, including serving in public positions. By April 16, 1871, this became Imperial Law and was extended to the entire empire. Although later reaction revoked most of this freedom, discrimination never returned to the level existing in the Middle Ages - until the rise of Hitler.
1348 June, NORTHERN SPAIN
Black Plague massacres began in Barcelona and Cervera.In Saragossa 80% of the Jewish population died of the plague.
1933 May 17, NORWAY
Vidkun Quisling established the Norwegian Fascist Party. About 1,800 Jews lived in Norway.
1896 NOVARDOK (Belarus)
Rabbi Joseph Hurwitz established a yeshiva devoted to Kabbalah, asceticism and the training of teachers.
1920 February 24, NSDAP (National Socialist) Party (Germany)
The Nazi party endorsed its own platform which consisted of twenty-five points. Seven of these points concerned the Jews. As part of their program they insisted that Jews could never be citizens or a part of the German Volk (people). That same year the German National Peoples Party (DNVP) also came out "against the predominance of Jewry in government and public life".
1945 December 10, NUREMBERG
Council Law No. 10 is signed by 23 countries establishing the war crimes commission at Nuremberg. Approximately 5000 people were tried with 600 receiving the death sentence.
1935 September 15, NUREMBERG LAWS (Germany)
"The law for the protection of German Blood and Honor" was instituted. As part of these laws, it became a capital offense to marry or have intimate relations with a Jew. The law was more specific than the 1933 laws regarding mixed or Mischlinge Jews, which defined as a Jew as anyone with one Jewish grandparent. The racial law was based on that Nazi belief that the basic freedoms of individuals were superseded by "racial or national characteristics" which were supposed to make some people inferior to others. As part of the "Reich Law", Jews were no longer citizens (with rights) but rather subjects of the Reich. These were among the 2,000 laws enacted against Jews which included the revoking of German citizenship, the prohibition against serving in the public sector, owning or editing newspapers, or immigrating to Germany.
1946 December 8, NUREMBERG TRIALS (Germany)
An American military court tried 177 people, including industrialists who directly profited from slave labor. The longest sentence was given to Alfred Krupp (twelve years). Krupp was released from prison with all his co-defendants on February 4, 1951. Although Krupp's industries had been confiscated, his personal fortune of around fifty million pounds sterling was returned to him. Over three million people were liable to be judged. Out of the 622,300 judged to be guilty, ninety-five percent were given fines or labor without imprisonment. Of the 93,000 major offenders, less then 300 were still in jail after 1949.