1881 February 10, LA CIVILTA CATTOLICA
The official Jesuit publication (founded by Pope Pius IX) published an article justifying pogroms as a natural consequence of the Jews demanding too much liberty. The article was written by Father Giuseppe Oreglia di Santo Stefano, one of the journal's founders.
1940 June 15, LA MER ET L'ENFANT (Paris, France)
Became the first social welfare organization in occupied France. Under the guidance of David Rapoport, "Mother and Child" helped thousands of Jews. Rapoport and his wife were arrested by the Nazis in June 1943 and deported to Auschwitz where they perished. The La Mere et l'Enfant was originally founded at a day camp known as the Colonie Scolaire which was located at 26 Rue Amelot. There were also known by some as the Rebels of the Rue Amelot.
1942 November 29, LA SIXIEME (The Sixth) (France)
The term referred to the Sixth Division of the French Jewish Scouts (EIF),
an underground organization formed and headed by Henry Wahl, Ninon Hait, Denise Levy, and Marc Haguenau. Until the liberation, they would produce thousands of false papers, recruit volunteers for the Marquis, and organize escape routes to Spain. Its core consisted of only 88 young people, 26 of whom were eventually arrested by the Gestapo.
1892 July 10, L'OSSERVATORE ROMANO
The official Vatican Newspaper publishes an article supporting ritual blood accusation. The article claimed that there were many unimpeachable witnesses to the “fact” that Jews use Christian blood for preparing Matzo.
1882 January 1, LA CROIX ( The Cross)
A French catholic news paper published an article entitled "Who Governs France". The author alleged that Jews control Germany , and asked if they will " baptized or not" eventually control France. The paper (now a daily) is still published.
1490 December 17, LA GUARDIA BLOOD LIBEL (Spain)
Six conversos and two Jews were accused of killing a child for ritual purposes. Although no child was ever declared missing, they were tortured for over a year by a special inquisition. They were declared guilty on November 14, 1491 of Host Desecration and the taking of the child's heart to use in sorcery. All eight were burned at the stake in the town of Avila and their property confiscated, and used to build the Church and monastery of Santo Tomas of Avila. According to a papal brief (1496) monks descended from Jews were not to be admitted into the church. The child became a saint known as the "Child of La Guardia". Books and plays were written and embellished about him as recently as 1943. The trial was developed and used by the inquisition to demonstrate that the very presence of Jews in the country was a danger to Christianity and was used by the king as a pretext for the soon to be proclaimed edict of expulsion.
1944 April 6, LA MAISON D'IZIEU (Izieu France)
Klaus Barbie, head of the Gestapo in Lyons, raided a children's home known as La Maison d'Izieu. Barbie, known as "the Butcher of Lyons", deported 44 Jewish children aged 4 to 13 years and 5 women who were taken directly to Auschwitz and murdered. After the war, Barbie worked for U.S. Army Intelligence, which helped him escape to Bolivia. It was only in 1983 that he was extradited to stand trial. He was convicted in July 1987 and died 4 years later.
1944 December 22, LABOR PARTY (Britain)
Adopted a proposal for the establishment of a Jewish state and the voluntary transfer of the Arab population.
1945 July 26, LABOR PARTY (England)
Won the election. Prior to the elections, Churchill had promised the end to the White Papers and to help establish a Jewish state. Within a month of his election, signs appeared that disputed Churchill's statements.
1942 September 2 - 3, LACHVA / LACHWA (Belarus)
German troops, together with Belarusn police, surrounded the ghetto which still had 2,000 people. Dov Lopatin head of the
Judenrat refused the German request to line up for deportation. Although many of the town's elders were against taking any initiative, Lopatin and the youth leaders decided to resist even without weapons. As the Germans entered, most of the town attacked them, equipped with axes, sticks, and Molotov cocktails. Between 600 to 700 Jews were killed fighting, and a further 600 succeeded in reaching the forests after killing or wounding about 100 Nazis. The rest were shot by the Germans. Many of those who reached the forests were killed by local police units. Approximately 90 people survived the war.
The first known printing of a book in Ladino. Ladino is a Judeo-Spanish dialect which spread to the Levant as well as the Ottoman Empire after the expulsion from Spain in 1492. Ladino is printed in Hebrew script similar to Yiddish. The first translation of the bible was a book on Psalms in 1540 published in Constantinople.
1884 LADINO (Bulgaria)
The first Ladino (Judeo-Spanish) newspaper La Alborada (Dawn) was published in Bulgaria
1777 LARGE IMMIGRATION OF HASDIM ( Eretz-Israel)
Menahem Mendal of Vitbist and Abraham of Kalisk arrived to Safed with a group of around 300 people. Different reasons are given for this large (for its time) immigration; some say the it was due to the persecution by the Mitnagdim(see 1720), others claim it had a messianic fervor and still claim it was for purely religious reasons. Many of them later moved to Tiberias.
1942 July 16 - 17, LARGEST AKTION OF FRENCH JEWS (Paris, France)
12,884 people, among them 4,051 children, were arrested and imprisoned in the Paris Velodrome d'Hiver cycling stadium. The action had been postponed so as not to conflict with Bastille Day. People were kept there for five days without almost any food and water. In general, the French police would only participate in roundups of foreign Jews, while the Gestapo itself would act against French Jews.
1826 July 26, LAST KNOWN AUTO DA FE (Valencia, Spain)
A poor school master was executed for adhering to Judaism. The Auto da Fe ceremony, accompanied by vitriolic sermons, had served to announce the punishments of those who were deemed guilty by the Inquisition of "backsliding". Often, but not always, those deemed guilty were burned at the stake (quemadero). It is estimated that approximately 30,000 people lost their lives, with hundreds of thousand receiving lesser punishments during the almost 350 years that the Inquisition was in existence.
1944 October 19, LATRUN INTERMENT CAMP (Eretz Israel)
The British surrounded the camp and deported 251 members of the Irgun and Lehi to Eritrea in Eastern Africa. Until the end of the British mandate, 439 people suspected of being associated with the Irgun and Lehi were deported.
1235 January 2, LAUDA - TAUBERBISCHOFSHEIM (Germany)
A Christian body was found between these two cities. For three days, the Jewish communities in both towns were attacked by mobs. Eight Jewish leaders from both towns were put on trial, tortured, convicted and executed.
1924 - 2014 LAUREN BACALL (Betty Joan Perske) (USA)
"The Look" as Warner Brothers billed her,rnmade her film debut starring opposite her husband-to-be, Humphrey Bogart in "To Have and Have Not" (1944). Over the next half century she performed in over 35 films. When her movie career cooled somewhat, she turned to Broadway, winning awards for her roles in Applause (1970) and Woman of the Year (1981). Although Bacall was never known by moviegoers as a "Jewish actress", according to her autobiography, she always felt proud of her Jewish heritage, which was rooted primarily in her love for her first-generation Jewish immigrant family.rn
1941 January 23, LAW FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE NATION (Bulgaria)
1941 January 23, LAW FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE NATION (Bulgaria) rnWas passed by Parliament (Sobranie) and then signed into law by King Boris. Unlike Germany, the definition of a Jew did not include native Bulgarian Jews who converted, which led to many fictitious conversions. Bulgaria's Prime Minister Bogdan Filov, and Minister of Interior Petar Gabrovski were eager to please the Germans, especially when it came to anti-Jewish measures. They were met with opposition by many in the Church, politicians, and many common people ,as it pertained to Bulgaria proper. This did not apply to Jews in Macedonia and Thrace where many German measures had full effect, including confiscation of property, ban on travel and eventual deportation. Of the 64,000 Jews in Bulgaria, 14,000 were murdered. Almost all were from Macedonia and Thrace (see March 1943) which had been added to Bulgaria by Hitler in March 1941.rnrn
1938 August 17, LAW REGARDING CHANGE OF NAMES (Germany)
Jewish men were required to add the name "Israel" and Jewish women, the name "Sarah" to all legal documents.
1934 March 23, LAW REGARDING EXPULSION FROM THE REICH (Germany)
Was passed. It became the basis for the deportation of Eastern European Jews.
1412 January 2, LAWS OF VALLADOLID (Castile, Spain)
Under the direction of Fra Vincent Ferrer (1350-1419) and Paul of Burgos (de Santa Maria) the government of Castile issued 24 edicts against the Jews, with its goal being to drive them to Christianity. These included a ban on working in handicrafts, trading in wine, flour, meat or bread, carrying arms, shaving, leaving the country, etc. Punishment was 100 lashes and a fine. Ferrer, a Dominican friar, traveled around Castile preaching anti-Jewish sermons, and compelling Jews under duress to convert. In many cases Jews were forced to listen to him preach in synagogues with a Torah in one hand and a cross in the other. He then would often consecrate the synagogue as a church. There was no strong central rule at the time since King, John II, was a child ruled by his mother Catherine and his uncle, Ferdinand I of Aragon. John only took control of the throne in 1418. Ferrer was canonized in 1455.
1942 March 10, LAZLO BARDOSSY (Hungary)
The pro-German prime minister, was ousted and Miklos (Nicholas) Kallay was appointed in his place. Although Kallay did stop deportations and executions, he kept all the anti-Jewish measures in place.
1940 June, - 1942 November, LE CHAMBON SUR LIGNON (near Lyon, France)
Pastor Andre Trocme encouraged the inhabitants of this small village to help as many Jews as possible. An estimated 5,000 Jews were given refuge. Trocme is one of the over 19,100 people honored as righteous gentiles at Yad V'shem in Jerusalem.
1918 December, LEAGUE OF NATIONS
Was established in an effort to prevent further wars. The League of Nations was instrumental in giving international backing for the "British Mandate" in Palestine and the Balfour Declaration. After the 29 Arab riots in 1929, the League criticized the British government for not doing enough to prevent or suppress the Arabs, and called into question the effectiveness of the Mandate.
1920 January 10, LEAGUE OF NATIONS
Was established in an effort to promote cooperation between countries and hopefully prevent further wars. The League of Nations lasted until 1946, although it had little power during its last ten years. The league also dealt with issues regarding anti-Semitism in Germany, the use of the numerus clauses in Hungarian Universities, and the expulsion of Jewish refugees in Austria. On July 24, 1922, the council confirmed the Balfour Declaration and the British Mandate for Palestine.
1720 - 1790 LEAH HOROWITZ (Poland)
Born into a family of scholars she soon showed acumen for studying Talmud. She was a composer of T'hkines, Yiddish for the hebrew Techinot or supplications. These were prayers in Yiddish for women who did not understand Hebrew. Horowitz is known for her of Tkhinne Imohes (Supplication of the Matriarchs). In her Hebrew introduction she described the importance of women's prayer, and encourages women to participate in daily prayers. She also deafened women's participating in Halachic and Talmudic studies.
1656 October 4, LECZYCA (Lenshitz, Poland)
During what was known as the Russo-Swedish wars, Jews from the surrounding area took refuge behind the city walls. The Polish army attacked after the local garrison fled to the castle, leaving the Jews to the mercy of the attacking forces. Between 2-3000 Jews were murdered and hundreds of Torah scrolls were destroyed, many of which had been brought to the city by the refugees.
1251 LEGAL STATUS OF JEWS DEFINED (Hungary)
Like most countries at the time, it protected the Jews as belonging to the king but allowed them to be singled out for harassment. This led to the initiative of the Church Council of Buda (1279) which required Jews to wear a badge and prohibited them from leasing land. King Bela IV was against the order and for the most part ignored it.
1593 June 10, LEGHORN, LIVORNO (Italy)
Under Ferdinand I (the Medici ruler). In an effort to turn the town into a successful port Ferdinand I issued an open invitation for "Westerners, Spaniards" etc. to join in settling the town. The charter guaranteed freedom of religion including the open practice (for Conversos) of Judaism and the right of citizenship.
1927 LEGION OF ARCHANGEL MICHAEL (Romania)
Was founded by Corneliu Codreanu (1899-1938). This fascist Christian-nationalist anti-Semitic organization was the forerunner of the Iron Guard which led most of the anti-Semitic movement in Romania before and during World War II.
1944 November 6, LEHI ASSASSINATED BRITISH MINISTER LORD MOYNE (Eretz Israel)
The LEHI group (Lochami Cheirut Yisrael) had accused him of expelling immigrant ships and preventing the arrival of refugees to Eretz Israel. When approached by Joel Brand in Cairo with a request to help save Hungarian Jewry he had commented, "what would I do with a million Jews." Two of Lehi's members - Eliyahu Hakim and Eliyahu Bet-Zuri - were dispatched to Cairo to assassinate Lord Moyne but were caught shortly after carrying out their mission. On January 10, 1945 they were put on trial and were hanged March 23, 1945.
1664 May 9, LEMBERG AND CRACOW (Poland)
Anti-Jewish riots by students and peasants resulted in damages and death in both communities. In Lemberg, the synagogue was attacked on the Sabbath and the Cantor was murdered.
1907 LENA HIMMELSTEIN (1881-1951) (USA)
A dress designer was asked by a customer to design a maternity dress so that she would not have to remain in seclusion during her pregnancy. The success of the dress opened an entire industry to development. Lena, known by first married name, Bryant, went on to establish well over 100 Lane Bryant stores in the United States.
1922 LENIN (Russia)
Created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
1903 October 22, LENIN AND THE JEWISH QUESTION (Russia)
In an article in the Journal Iskra (The Spark) he wrote "The Jewish question can be posed in this way only: assimilation or ghetto... The idea of a Jewish nationality contradicts the interests of the Jewish proletariat."
1905 LEO BAECK
Published Essence of Judaism. In it Baeck, stressed the ethical and spiritual aspects of Judaism. (see 1873)
1873 - 1956 LEO BAECK (Germany-England)
Leading theologian of the Reform movement. He believed in melding modern thought with Jewish ethics. Although the Nazis permitted him to leave in 1938, he chose to remain with his congregation and spent 5 years in Theresienstadt.
1913 April 27, LEO FRANK (USA)
The only white man to be convicted on the testimony of a Negro until the 1960's, he was convicted of murdering Mary Phagan. Though there was little evidence against him, Tom Watson, the editor of the Jeffersonian, used the fact that Frank was a Jew to convict him before the public. Later (see 1915) Georgia Governor John Slaton, believing that the trial had been unfair, commuted the sentence to life imprisonment.
1915 August 17, LEO FRANK (USA)
A southern Jew falsely accused of murdering 14-year-old Mary Phagen was taken out of prison and hung by a lynch mob. A few months earlier, his death sentence had been commuted to life in prison by Governor John Slaton, who believed that Frank had not had a fair trial. In 1925, Jim Conlay, a negro who had been his accuser in court, was found guilty of her murder and of perjury.(see 1913)
726 LEO III (the Isaurian) ( Byzantine Empire)
Published his new codes of law called the Ecloga (Selection). Although Judaism was to be restricted, it was not banned.
717 - 741 LEO III (The Isaurian) (Byzantine Empire)
Reigned in Constantinople. After narrowly defeating the Arab army at his gates and preventing the fall of his empire, he decided that the weakness of his empire lay in its heterogeneous population and therefore, in 722, he forcibly converted Jews as well as those known as the "New Christians". Most of them converted outwardly while secretly remaining faithful.
1017 LEON (Christian Kingdom in Spain)
Alfonso V set a code of laws known as the Fuero of Leon. This charter encouraged the settlement of Jews and others in his lands, granting them all equality.
1821 December 24, - 1891 LEON (YEHUDA) PINSKER (Russia)
Renowned physician and early Zionist. Pinsker's conduct during the cholera epidemic of 1848 earned him respect and admiration. His ideas on Zionism were set out in his pamphlet "Auto-Emancipation" (see 1887), which was the first textbook analysis of Modern Zionism. Pinsker believed in the purchasing of land and immigration of Jews as a first step in solving the problem of anti-Semitism.
1936 June 4, LEON BLUM (1872-1950) (France)
Became the first Jew to be elected premier of France. Blum, a socialist, instituted the 40 hour work week and many important social reforms. His government, lasting only one year, fell over lack of parliamentary support for his financial program.
1872 - 1950 LEON BLUM (France)
Socialist, author, and critic. An activist in the socialist party, he led a coalition to win in 1936. The Vichy government arrested him in 1940 and he spent the rest of the war in an Austrian prison.
1945 April 2, LEON FELDHENDLER ( Poland)
A resistance fighter and one of the organizers (together with the Russian Alexandr Pechersky), of the Sobibor uprising on October 14th 1943. He was killed nine months after the Russians took control of the area, probably by a right wing Polish nationalists.
1882 October 17, LEON PINSKER (Poland)
Published his Auto-Emancipation as a result of the Russian pogroms of the previous year. Pinsker advocated establishing a homeland as a cure for anti-Semitism. Eretz Israel was not his original suggestion, and only later did he join the fledgling Zionist movement.
1879 - 1940 LEON TROTSKY (BRONSTEIN) (Russia)
Trotsky was the son of a Jewish Odessian farmer. Believing there was no future for the Jewish people as a people, he became a contemporary of Lenin, helping him with his publication of Iskra (Spark). He was exiled and arrested many times before the Revolution. Trotsky played an important role in the Communist government and only after Lenin's death did Stalin expel him from the party. He was exiled in 1928 first to Turkey then Norway and finally to Mexico. Trotsky was assassinated on August 21, 1940 by a friend, presumably on Stalin's orders. Trotzky did not accept the concept of Jewish identity and was violently opposed to Zionism.
1941 August 21, LEON TROTSKY (Lev Davidovich Bronstein) (Mexico)
Was murdered on Stalin's order. In his last years he had tried to set up an independent movement known as the Fourth International as opposed to the Third (Communist) International, but did not succeed. Trotskyism became tantamount to treason throughout the Soviet Union.
1918 August 25, - 1990 LEONARD BERNSTEIN (USA)
Composer and conductor. Bernstein was the first American-born musician to conduct the New York Philharmonic. Although he composed a number of symphonies (many with Jewish themes), he is most remembered for the musical, West Side Story. Bernstein was also a gifted teacher and created "Leonard Bernstein's Young People's Concerts" which were broadcast on television to rave reviews and popularity.
1934 - 2016 LEONARD COHEN ( Canada)
Poet, song writer Born into an orthodox family, he maintained contact with his community throughout his life. Cohen published poetry collections and novels including Beautiful Losers, Let Us Compare Mythologies, The Spice-Box of Earth, and Flowers for Hitler, but is remembered for his music recording of fourteen albums. His most well known songs include, Suzanne , So long Marrianne , Dance Me to the End of Love, Tower of song, and of course Hallelujah. He was buried in a simple Jewish ceremony in Montreal.
1794 - 1886 LEOPOLD ZUNZ
A friend of Heine and Boerne and an eminent scholar. He sided with Frankel's reformers in a vote for tradition. Zunz founded (along with Krochmal) the Wissenschaft des Judentums (The scientific investigation of Judaism) in 1819. As an author, he pleaded for public (secular) recognition of Jewish literature, "Jewish Science". Zunz wrote a biography on Rashi, traced the development of liturgical literature, wrote Bible criticisms, and discoursed on many other subjects.
1392 April 23, LETTER OF PRAISE ( Barcelona)
Was written by King Henry III (1379-1406) and Queen Catherine of Castile to the city of Saragossa for taking efforts to protect the Jews of the city from the riots . The king had is summer residence in the city.rn
1839 June 11, LETTER TO MONTEFIORE
Was sent by leaders in the Perushim and Sephardic communities. In it, they supported agricultural work by Jews. Lehren (see 1784) the director of the Halukah was against it, believing that Jews should concentrate on study, and that the land is supposed to remain desolate until the coming of the Messiah.
1883 - 1936 LEV KAMENEV (Rosenfeld) (Russia)
Revolutionary writer and Soviet leader. A colleague of Lenin's, he co-edited revolutionary journals. Prior to the Revolution, Kamenev lead the movement in Tiflis, Georgia, and supposedly introduced Stalin to Lenin. Kamenev married Trotsky's sister, who asked him to edit his Party newspaper Pravda. After Lenin's death, he formed a triumvirate together with Stalin and Zinoviev which forced Trotsky into exile. Later, realizing Stalin's true direction of becoming a dictator, he began to oppose him. This cost him his power and eventually his life. Kamenev was executed in 1936 after a show trial.
1866 - 1938 LEV SHESTOV (Schwartzman) (Russia)
Philosopher known as the "Nietzche of Russia". He believed that everything revolved around G-d. He influenced many of the 2oth century's intellectuals including Camus, Berdayev, and D.H. Lawrence. Among his works are essays on Chekhov, Tolstoy, Ibsen, and Dostoevsky as well as his books "Athens and Jerusalem" and "Speculation and Relation".
1288 - 1344 (6 Iyar 5104) LEVI BEN GERSHON RALBAG
Rabbi, mathematician, astronomer, philosopher and biblical/talmudic commentator. In his Milchamot Hashem (Wars of the Lord) he elaborated on his own conception of Maimonides' philosophy. He tried to explain miracles through laws of nature. As an astronomer, he influenced Copernicus and is reputed to be the inventor of the "Jacob's Staff", a quadrant used for centuries by navigators. He also wrote a commentary on the Bible and reportedly invented the "camera obscura", which threw images on a screen and was the forerunner of the modern camera.
1480 - 1543 LEVI IBN HABIB (Ralbach) ( Spain -Jerusalem)
Rabbi and communal leader . When he was a youth he was forcibly baptized by king Manuel of Portugal but upon reaching Salonika, he returned to Judaism. Ibn Habib edited and published his father's Ein Ya'akov ( see1445) and wrote around 150 responsa. As Rabbi of Jerusalem he came into conflict with Jacob Berab over the issue of ordination (see 1583).
1740 - 1809 (25 Tishrei 5770) LEVI YITZCHAK OF BERDICHEV (Russia)
A great Hasidic Rebbe, leader and scholar. He studied under Dov Ber, the Maggid of Mezhirech, and became one of his close friends. Levi Yitzchak stressed the joy in serving God, emphasizing the idea of connecting to God through fervent prayer. He always accentuated the good and the positive that was in people. Levi Yitzchak composed Hasidic music and was immortalized by his vivaciously optimistic parables.
1911 October 11, LIBYA
Was conquered by Italy. Jews received equal rights and for the next 25 years (until the onset of fascist anti-Jewish legislation), the community flourished.
1277 LICORICIA OF WINCHESTER (England)
Was murdered along with her servant. Licoricia was a twice widowed money lender, and one of the richest Jews in England. Approximately 10 percent of the Jewish money lenders were women. After her second husband David of Oxford died, his house and its contents were seized by the crown and turned into the Royal Domus Conversum: a house for converts. The murderer was never caught. Henry III confiscated 3000 Ł (over 2 million in today's value) from her estate and used it to rebuild Westminster abbey.
1865 - 1931 LIEUTENANT GENERAL SIR JOHN MONASH (Australia-France)
Highest ranking Australian in World War I. In 1918 he was appointed head of the Australian army in France.
1899 - 1942 LILLI HENOCH (Germany)
Major women’s sports figure. Henoch was an all around athlete competing in track and field. She set four world records and won 10 national championships. Unfortunately she never was able to participate in the Olympics; in 1924 Germany was banned and in 1936 the Germans refused to allow her to compete. She and her mother were deported to Riga where they were murdered in September 1942.
1902 LILY MONTAGU (1873-1963) (England)
Daughter of Samuel Montagu, Lord Swaythling (of the United Synagogue movement), she joined Claude Joseph Montefiore (a great-nephew of
Sir Moses Montefiore) to develop the first Liberal Synagogue in London. At the age of 20 she founded the West Central Girls' Club (West Central Jewish Day Settlement) for working girls which she continued to run all of her life.
1595 December 17, LIMA (Peru)
Ten people were accused of practicing Judaism. Four were handed over for punishment. One of them, Francisco Rodriguez, was burned alive.
1010 LIMOGES (France)
Although the Capetian dynasty had been in power in France for twenty-three years, they provided no security for Jews. In Limoges, Bishop Alduin gave them the option of baptism or exile. The Jews sent Jacob bar Yukutiel to petition the Pope. One of his sons was forced to remain behind as a hostage to the bishop, while the rest went with him to Rome. He persuaded the Pope to send an envoy to the area with a papal order "not to kill, injure or rob Jews, nor to deprive them of their religion."
992 LIMOGES (France)
A Jewish apostate named Sechog ben Ester planted a wax figure in the ark of the local synagogue and then accused the local Jews of using it to curse the local Lord by devil magic. Although they succeeded in deflecting the accusation, the idea that Jews were devil worshippers was gaining more acceptance in the Christian world. A brief account of the incident was published as Sefer Yeshuat Elohim (The Book of God's Salvation) which is one of the earliest Jewish historiographical (if not totally accurate) works.
1830 - 1909 LINA MORGENSTERN (Germany)
Educator and philanthropist. Morgenstern began her work by opening a school for the disadvantaged when she was only 18. She was active in many branches of philanthropy but most of her efforts went into education. She established the first free kitchens in Germany in 1866 as well as a society to help educate and defend the rights of women. She also authored a book on education Das Paradies der Kinderheit.
1506 April 19 - 21, LISBON (Portugal)
During a service at St. Dominics Church, some of the people thought they saw a vision on one of the statues. Outside, a newly converted Jew raised doubts about the "miracle". He was literally torn to pieces and then burned. The crowd, led by two Dominican monks, proceded to ransack Jewish houses and kill any Jews they could find. During the next few days countrymen, hearing about the massacre, came to Lisbon to join in. Over two thousands Jews were killed during these three days.
1540 September 20, LISBON (Portugal)
The first Auto da Fe of those forcibly converted to Christianity (Conversos) was held. The Auto da Fe was to play a macabre part of Portuguese life for the next 250 years.
1682 May 10, LISBON (Portugal)
The largest Judaizing trial was held in Lisbon: 117 persons were judged within three days. One penitent included Anna Rodriguez of Chaves, who was 97.
1755 January 15, LISBON (Portugal)
Jeronimo Jose Ramos, a merchant from Braganza, was the last known Jew to be burned alive for secretly practicing Judaism. He had escaped the previous Auto da Fe in September of 1752.
1941 June 23, Lithuania
Archbishop Juozapas Skvirecks (1873-1959) the papal prelate, sent a public greeting and prayer to “the German forces and Adolf Hitler”. When asked to intercede in the ongoing massacres of Jews by Lithuanians - he refused. Within 24 hours of the German invasion over150 Jewish communities were destroyed by locals, before German forces even arrived. There were 200,000 Jews were living in Lithuania when the Germans invaded. Less than 10,000 survived, making it one of the highest victim rates in Europe.
1255 August 29, LITTLE SAINT HUGH OF LINCOLN (England)
An infamous ritual murder libel. It was alleged that Jews enticed the boy and while starving him, invited Jews to Lincoln to murder him ritually. (Jews did come to Lincoln at that time to attend a wedding.) His body was cast into a well and a month later "miracles" followed the discovery of his corpse. On the basis of the alleged "confession" by Jopin (Jacob), the secular authorities (for the first time) and the Church sent 91 Jews to the Tower of London. 18 were executed before Richard and the friars stopped the killings. This incident later provided Chaucer with the idea for his Prioress Tale (1387) and the hero of the popular ballad, "Little Sir Hugh". His birthday (August 27) was celebrated until the Reformation.
1941 February 23, LODZ (Poland)
During the winter of 1940-1941, a period known as the "great hunger", the Rabbis permitted pregnant women and those who were ill to eat non-kosher food. Many Rabbis also permitted working on the Sabbath - if refusal would endanger their lives.
1940 February 8, LODZ (Poland)
Nazi Germany ordered the setting up of the Lodz Ghetto. Before the war, Lodz was the second largest Jewish community in Poland with 233,000 Jews, one-third of the city's residents. As the Germans arrived around 75,000 fled the city. By May 1st, 160,000 Jews were funneled into the ghetto renamed Litzmannstadt. Of the more than 200,000 who were to live in the ghetto, only about 10,000 would survive. The reality that Lodz was annexed by Germany and isolated from the rest of the city, and the fact that people thought that the work camps may keep them alive, all contributed to the lack of any attempt at revolt.
1944 August 6, LODZ GHETTO (Poland)
The last ghetto in Poland was liquidated. 60,000 Jews were sent to Auschwitz.
1940 April 30, LODZ GHETTO (Poland)
Was surrounded with barbed wire, wooden fences, and outposts making it the first ghetto to be sealed off. In the previous 8 months, more than 70,000 Jews had left the city, with 164,000 remaining in the ghetto.
1241 LONDON (England)
Approximately 2000 Jews lived in London. Many of the wealthier Jews had synagogues in their homes to get around the difficulty of obtaining a permit to build a synagogue.
1243 December 14, LONDON (England)
King Henry III turned a confiscated synagogue into the chapel of St. Mary. Many other synagogues were also confiscated and turned into churches, including one which became St. Thomas' Hospital.
1263 LONDON (England)
A synagogue which was reputed to be one of the most beautiful buildings in London was damaged by anti-Jewish riots and then given to the Brothers of St. Anthony of Vienna. It became St. Anthony's hospital.
1280 January 2, LONDON (England)
Jews were forced to hear Dominican conversion sermons. Jewish blasphemy of the Church was deemed a capital offense. Abraham the son of Deulecresse of Norwich was drawn and burned for "Blasphemy and other trespasses" including alleged coinage violation. The punishment for coinage clipping alone was hanging.
1282 LONDON (England)
All synagogues were closed by order of the Archbishop of Canterbury, John Pectin. Jewish physicians were prohibited from treating Christians.
1592 LONDON (England)
Synagogue services were held privately in a house owned by Solomon Abenaes (Alvaro Mendes, Duke of Mitylene). He was then in negotiation with the English court over an Anglo-Turkish alliance against Spain. (see 1520)
1594 July 7, LONDON (England)
Roderigo Lopez, Queen Elizabeth's physician and a Converso, was executed after being accused by the Earl of Essex of trying to poison the queen. The Earl, who headed the War Party and was allied with the Portuguese pretender, Dom Antonio, was incensed at Lopez's efforts to establish peace with Spain after the defeat of the Armada. The anti-Semitism raised by the trial is reflected in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice.
1609 LONDON (England)
A small Converso colony founded by Queen Elizabeth was expelled on charges of Judaizing.
1732 LONDON (England)
The Talmud Torah school, a predecessor of the Jews' free school, was established.
1842 January 27, LONDON (England)
First English Reform synagogue was founded. It was known as the West London Synagogue for British Jews.
1856 November 10, LONDON (England)
Jews College was opened by Rabbi Nathan M. Adler. Its main goals were to offer courses and training in both Jewish and secular subjects as well as to establish a Jewish secondary school. The secondary school only lasted about 20 years.
1870 April 14, LONDON (England)
The United Synagogue was set up by Nathan Adler and Lionel Cahn. It united the Ashkenazic synagogues of London for charity and civic affairs.
1942 April 12, LONKA KORZYBRODSKA AND BELA HAZAN ( Poland)
Two Jewish couriers were arrested by the Germans carrying weapons. They were instrumental with maintaining contact between the HeHalutz ha-Za’ir-Dror movement’s center in Vilna and its various chapters, as well as smuggling money and weapons. Bela actually served for a while as an interpreter for the Gestapo using false papers. Though tortured, they refused to give the Germans any information. Thinking they were gentiles working for the polish resistance they were sent to Auschwitz as poles. Lonka died of disease on March 18, 1943 in Birkenau. Bela Ya’ari Hazan survived the war and died in Jerusalem in 2004 the age of 82 .
1644 July 25, LOPE DE VERA (Judah the Believer) (Spain)
A brilliant young Christian scholar who was drawn to Judaism by the outrages of the Inquisition. He was arrested in Valladolid for his inclinations toward Judaism. During his five years in prison he resisted all attempts to get him to change his ways. He changed his name to Judah the Believer and even circumcised himself with a bone. On July 25, 1644 he was burned alive for refusing to yield to the Inquisition. He chanted Hebrew prayers during the procession. Even while the flames were burning he was heard reciting the psalm "Unto thee oh Lord do I lift my soul". The Inquisitor Mirezo wrote: "He was the greatest Jewish heretic that I think has been in the church."
1919 September 23, LORD GEORGE NATHANIAL CURZON ( London)
Meeting with Feisal, he showed him the correspondence between his father Hussein and the British government, emphatically explaining that Palestine was excluded from any agreement In November, Hussein acknowledged that neither he nor his successors, would have any claims over the land. This, despite pressure from Palestinian activists, who insisted that it was part of Syria. Lord Curzon (1851-1925) served as a member of the inner cabinet in WWI and later as foreign secretary ,and despite the above was decidedly anti-Zionist.
1930 October 20, LORD PASSFIELD (Eretz Israel)
Issued his "White Paper" banning further land acquisition by Jews and slowing Jewish immigration. Weizmann, who had always toed a pro-British line, resigned in protest.
1840 September 25, LORD SHAFTESBURY (England)
Presented a paper to Foreign secretary Lord Palmerston (Henry John Temple). In it Shaftesbury (Anthony Ashley Cooper) called for the “recall of the Jews to their ancient land”. He believed that the return of the Jews to the land of Israel was not only a Biblical prophecy but in the best interests of British foreign policy.
1897 - 1944 LOUIS "LEPKE" BUCHALTER (USA)
Crime boss. Though quiet, Lepke was known for his violence. He ruled over an army of gangsters who controlled unions and the extortion rackets. Lepke was one of the founders of the National Crime Syndicate and was in charge of the enforcement branch which became known as "Murder Inc." In 1944 he was executed in Sing Sing Prison for killing a truck driver.
1856 - 1941 LOUIS BRANDEIS (USA)
Liberal jurist and lawyer, he was known as "the people's attorney". He opposed monopolies and fought for higher wages and freedom of speech. In 1916 Woodrow Wilson nominated him to the position of Supreme Court Justice. Brandeis was an ardent Zionist, and in 1939 he resigned to devote himself to the Zionist cause. Although he disagreed with Weizmann regarding what he considered to be the economic and organizational inefficiency of the World Zionist Organization, he continued to be involved with the establishment of the Palestine Economic Corporation and the Palestine Endowment Fund. Brandeis fought the Peel Partition Plan of 1937, maintaining that the Jews had a right to all of Mandated Palestine. Kibbutz Ein Hashofet was named in his honor.
1937 LOUIS DARQUIER DE PELLEPOIX
Founded and headed the Rassemblement anti-Juif de France. His program included promoting the "Protocols" and his own magazine, La France Enchaines, as well as calling for the expulsion or extermination of the Jews. During the war he became Commissioner General for Jewish affairs and helped deport nine thousand foreign Jews to German camps.
1492 October 12, LOUIS DE TORRES (Spain-America)
Became the first white man to set foot in the Western Hemisphere landing in
San Salvador with Christopher Columbus. De Torres converted to Christianity right before sailing and served as an interpreter for Columbus.
He discovered and introduced tobacco into Europe. There is an interesting story relating to Torres who saw a bird he thought to be a peacock and called it a "tuki" (Hebrew for peacock - I Kings X22). Today that bird is known as a turkey. In Spanish one of the names for Turkey is Pavo, which originally referred to a peacock.
1269 June 19, LOUIS IX (Saint Louis) (France)
Needing no urging from the Church, he ordered all Jews found in public without a badge (yellow or red) to be fined ten livres of silver. The badge in France was usually a circle of red or yellow material and was known as a rouelle. The original badge was actually Moslem in origin; it was Caliph Omar II (717-20) who decreed that both Jews and Christians must wear a distinguishing mark. The "badge" took on different shapes, colors and even dress (i.e. a hat or color of a dress) depending on the country.
1226 - 1270 LOUIS IX (SAINT) OF FRANCE
Sanctioned laws against Jews and encouraged disputations between Jewish and Christian theologians (Nicholas Donin,1240) in order to convert more Jews. At the same time that he oppressed the Jews (i.e. canceling all debts owed to them by Christians), he gave gifts and favors to any who converted. He recommended that the best way of winning an argument with a Jew was to drive a sword as far as it would go into his stomach.
1848 LOUIS KOSSUTH (Hungary)
Led the revolt against Austria. Twenty thousand Jews were among the insurgents.
1856 - 1929 LOUIS MARSHALL (USA)
Constitutional lawyer and Jewish leader. He defended Jewish and minority rights and, although he was not a Zionist, he supported the Balfour Declaration.
1836 LOUIS NAPOLEON (France)
Failed to capture Strasbourg and was exiled to America.
1831 February 8, LOUIS PHILIPPE OF FRANCE
Successor to Charles X, he ratified a motion which put Judaism on a par with Christianity and granted state support to synagogues and their Minister of Religion.
1934 May 2, LOUIS T. MCFADDEN
A congressman from Pennsylvania who attacked the Jews in Congress. This was the first act of political anti-Semitism in the United States.
814 - 840 LOUIS THE PIOUS (Carolingian Empire)
Charlemagne's son. He succeeded his father as king. He continued and expanded his father's tolerant policies toward the Jews. Market day was changed from the Sabbath to Sunday and a Jew, Ebeard, was appointed Magister Judeacrum whose function was to protect Jewish rights.
1144 LOUIS VII (France)
Condemned converted Jews who "relapsed" to death. All professing Jews were not affected. The general "liberal" position towards Judaism in France still continued.
1315 LOUIS X (France)
Philip's Ivâ€™s son and successor. He allowed the Jews back into France largely for financial considerations. (Jews were often expelled because of pressure from the Church, economic or political considerations, only to be readmitted at a later date.) The Jews were promised one year's notice should permission to return be rescinded. He also returned their synagogues and cemeteries.
1784 January 10, LOUIS XVI (France)
Abolished the poll-tax on Jews in Alsace-Lorraine. This tariff was the same tax paid for market animals. It was paid by Jews who wished to enter certain cities. The poll tax had been instituted in many countries in Europe and dated back as far as the Roman Emperor Domitian (93 C.E.), though it was only adopted in Europe in the 14th century.
1759 January, LOUISIANA COLONY (North American Colonies)
Despite what was known as the Louisiana Black Code, there were at least 5 Jewish families living there. The law denied residence to Jews or the practice of any religion except Catholicism in the territory.
1815 March 6, LUBECK (Germany)
With the defeat of Napoleon, new restrictions were imposed on the Jews all over Europe. In Lubeck, the guilds demanded and obtained a decree expelling all Jews.
1655 LUBLIN (Poland)
A force comprised of Cossacks and Russians led by Peter Ivanovich offered to leave the city alone if it surrendered and paid a heavy fine. The Jews, knowing what would happen to them, paid local people to hide them. The local leaders agreed to the offer, only once they were allowed in, the local inhabitants told the Cossacks where the Jews were hiding. Two thousand were slaughtered.
1942 October 30, LUBLIN (Poland)
One hundred Russian-Jewish POW's escaped from the Lipowa Street labor camp. They purchased around 100 police uniforms and marched right through Lublin until they reached the forests. The Germans decided to liquidate the camp after this and a few other escapes.
1942 November 3, LUBLIN (Poland)
After the closure of the Lipowa camp, the 1,500 Jewish-Russian POW's were ordered to march to Majdanek. The prisoners used their few arms to storm the armory in Lublin, which they captured at a cost of 400 prisoners. Using the arms they tried to reach the forests. In all, 800 escaped. Unfortunately the Polish underground refused to help them and many were killed or turned over to the Germans by the London based Polish government in exile Home Army.
1148 LUCENA (Spain)
The Almohads under Abd al-Mumim (see 1146), reached the mostly Jewish town of Lucena. They forced the local Jews to choose between Islam or death. This spelled the end of the Jewish community. The Talmudic school was closed and most of the Jews fled north to Christian controlled areas. The synagogue was converted into a mosque and later into the church of San Mateo.
853 LUCENA, ANDALUSIA (Southern Spain)
According to Natronai Gaon, "Alisana (Arabic for Lucena) was a Jewish place with no gentiles at all." Lucena ostensibly was founded by Jews hundreds of years earlier. It served as the cultural center of Andalusian Jewry and was known during the era of Moslem rule as an all-Jewish city.
C. 1320 LUCERNE (Switzerland)
A town proclamation demanded a fine for anyone perpetrating a blood libel against the Jews without notifying the council in advance.
117 LUCIUS QUIETUS
Was appointed Roman Governor of Judea after putting down the revolt in Babylonia. The wars against Rome which included those in Cyprus/ North Africa and those in Babylon were known after his name as "The War of Kitos" although he was only active in the eastern campaign. His harsh rule of Judea only lasted a year when he was murdered, probably on orders of Hadrian(the new Emperor), who feared his popularity and disagreed with his policies of annexation.rn
193 - 211 LUCIUS SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS (Roman Empire)
Numbered as one of the emperors friendly to the Jews. Part of his attitude was in response to the support he received from the Jewish communities in his war against Pescennius Niger, who had once told a Jewish delegation that he was sorry he couldn't tax the air they breathed. In spite of this, Severus forbade Jews from converting anyone to Judaism. Under his reign Jews could be appointed to public offices, but were exempt from those formalities which were contrary to Judaism.
1786 - 1837 LUDWIG BOERNE (Germany)
Political essayist. He believed that freedom for mankind and freedom of the Jews were bound together. Though he was later baptized, he still fought for Jewish rights. His famous Letters from Paris called for an end to injustice in Germany. Boerne, along with Heine, are considered major influences in German literature.
1818 - 1876 LUDWIG TRAUBE (Germany)
Founder of experimental pathology. He gained renown for his research on diseases of the lungs, heart, and kidneys.
1941 June 12, LUFTWAFFE BOMBED TEL AVIV AND HAIFA (Eretz Israel)
Twelve people were killed in a Tel Aviv old age home.
1915 May 7, LUSITANIA
An American ship was sunk by the Germans. This act eventually brought America into World War I. Roughly 250,000 Jews served in the U.S. Armed Forces, with an estimated 3,500 dead, and 12,000 wounded.
1664 May, LVOV
Jews, learning about an impending attack by Jesuit seminary students and the Cathedral school, prepared a defense of the ghetto. The local official sent in the militia to ostensibly restore order. Instead, they joined the rioters, killing about 100 Jews.
1592 September 1, LVOV (Poland)
Harsh persecution began with Archbishop Salikowski ordering the Jews to build a church.
1935 December 8, LVOV POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE
Introduced the ghetto bench, special seats for Jewish students. This soon spread to many other universities in Poland.
1420 LYONS (France)
All Jews were expelled from Lyons, including the refugees from Paris who were expelled 20 years earlier. The only Jews left in France remained in Provence (until 1500) and in the possessions of the Holy See.