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1943 October 16, JUDENRAZZIA (ROUNDUP OF JEWS) IN ROME(Italy)

In the largest action of its kind in Italy, over one thousand Jews were rounded up and deported directly to Auschwitz by SS-Obersturmbannfuhrer (Lieutenant-Colonel) Herbert Kappler, the head of the Gestapo on Rome. Out of Italy's approximately 40,000 Jews, 8000 Jews or 20% were annihilated. Over 2000 Jews joined various partisan units. Despite the silence of the pope, the help offered by local clergy and the Italian people in general, played a major role in the low number of deportations.


1894 February 14, - 1974 JACK BENNY (Benjamin Kubelsky) (USA)

Like many comedians of his era, he began in vaudeville and became known for using his violin as a prop. In 1932, he began his radio show, The Jack Benny Program and in 1950, made the successful transition into television winning two Emmy awards. Benny was famous for his alter-ego personality: never aging beyond 39, a tightwad persona, and inept violin playing (he was actually generous in real life and an exceptional violinist). Trademarks of his comic routine was when he paused, resting his chin on his hand, and uttered the word "Well!" or telling his audience in an aside, "Now cut that out!"


1194 - 1256 JACOB ANATOLI ( France - Naples)

Physician, Educator, and Translator. In 1224 Anatoli was invited by Emperor Frederick II to help establish a university in Naples and help translate Arabic scientific material. Many believe that there he befriended Michael Scott (1175 – c.1232) the medieval mathematician and scholar. His sermons were organized in a book called Malmad ha-Talmidim (The Students' Instruction). He lamented the emphasis on Talmudic at the expense of biblical studies, and supported the inclusion of both foreign languages and natural sciences. Anatoli fought against all aspects of fanaticism regardless of religion.


1224 JACOB ANATOLI (Naples, Italy)

Was invited by Emperor Frederick II to help establish a university. (see 1194)


1687 December 5, JACOB AND DAVID ROBLES ( New York City)

Petitioned for the granting of a “letter of denization” (rights of a settler) which would allow them both an exemption of imported property tax, and the ability to own and farm land.


1605 JACOB BAK AND SONS (Prague, Bohemia)

Family of printers who printed Hebrew books for almost 200 years.


1654 July 8, JACOB BARSIMSON (North American Colonies)

Left Holland aboard the Peartree for New Amsterdam and landed there on August 22. He was considered the first Jewish resident of New Amsterdam (New York). A month later, on September 23, Jews who had sailed from Brazil joined him.


1570 - 1634 JACOB BASSEVI OF TREUENBERG (Verona- Prague)

Court Jew and financier. He and his brother Samuel were instrumental in buying 34 houses and expanding the Jewish quarter of Prague. Bassevi intervened time and again, to help the Jewish communities in Bohemia and Italy He raised the money ( mostly his own), to fund the release of Rabbi Yom Tov Lipman Heller in 1629. After the death of Charles of Lichtenstein, he lost favor and was forced to flee Prague. His property was confiscated by the Emperor Ferdinand II (1578-1637).


1270 - 1343 (12 Tamuz 5103) JACOB BEN ASHER (Germany)

The Baal Haturim. The third son of the "Rosh" (Asher ben Jehiel), he achieved fame as a codifier of Jewish law. His code is constructed in four sections: 1) Orah Hayim - dealing with worship, 2) Yorah Deah - on ritual law, 3) Eben ha-Ezer - laws relating to marriage and divorce, 4) Hoshen Mishpat - on civil law. Unlike Maimonides, he only compiled current laws and his works served as a foundation for Joseph Caro and others. His son, Solomon, died during the Black Plague.


C. 1475 - 1542 JACOB BEN DAVID TAM IBN YAHYA ( Portugal-Ottoman empire)

Talmudic scholar, physician and authority on Islamic law. Ibn Yahya was appointed chief Rabbi of Constantinople and also served as a physician to Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566). A productive writer, all of his manuscripts were destroyed in a fire. He died a year later. After his death, 213 of his extant responsa were collected under the title Ohale Tam (The Tents of the Pure).


C. 1236 - C. 1304 JACOB BEN MACHIR IBN TIBBON, (France)

Astronomer and physician. Also known as Don Profiat Tibbon, and Profatius Judaeus, his works were quoted by among others, Copernicus. Ben Machir translated many classic texts of Greek mathematical and astronomical works from Arabic to Hebrew. He wrote two original works; the first Roba' Yisrael described an astronomical instrument called the quadrant (quadrans novus) including how to build one. The second Luchot was a book on planetary motions and astronomical tables. His first book was translated several times into Latin.


1100 - 1171 (4 Tamuz 4931) JACOB BEN MEIR (France)

Rabbenu Tam (Rameru, France). Youngest and most famous of the three grandsons of Rashi, and the most renowned of the Tosafists. He also studied Hebrew verse, wrote liturgical prayers and exchanged poems with Ibn Ezra. He convened a council of sages in which 150 Rabbis participated. The council was held in the shadow of the Second Crusade. He lived through and described the Second Crusade and the burning of Jews at Blois, France. His nephew and student, Rabbi Isaac (the Ri), took his place when he died.


1365 - 1427 JACOB BEN MOSES MOLLEN (The Maharil) (Mainz and Worms, Germany)

One of the first great authorities to be distinguished with the title "Moreinu". He was also noted for his cantorial prowess and his adherence to nusah ha'tfillah (wording of the prayers).


C. 930 - 1006 JACOB BEN NISSIM IBN SHAHIN (Kairouan, Tunisia)

Scholar. He was considered on of the leaders of the North African or Maghreb community


C. 1445 - 1516 JACOB BEN SOLOMON IBN HABIB (CASTILE - SALONIKA)

Rabbinical leader and scholar. In the years following the expulsion he focused on the practical Halachic problems that arose on a daily basis. Ibn Habib strived to find ways to ease Ibn Habib strived to find ways to ease the sufferings and difficulties of those expelled from Spain, within the realms of Halacha. He is most remembered for his Ein Ya’akov, a compendium of the “agadot” (non-legalistic literature) from the Talmud. . His emphasis’ reflect the problems facing his generation. Over 100 editions of Ein Ya'akov have been published, and it remains just as popular today as it was 500 years ago.


990 - 1064 JACOB BEN YAKAR (Germany)

Rabbi and co-founder of the great Yeshiva Academy of Worms, and the principal teacher of Rashi. Many of the Rabbinical leaders who came out of the academies in Mayence and Worms met their death in the First Crusade and little of their works have survived.


C. 1474 - 1546 (30 Nissan 5306) JACOB BERAB (Beirav) (Morocco)

Rabbi and Halachic Leader. Berab became Rabbi of Fez at the age of 18 and was considered one of the most influential halachic leaders of North Africa, Syria and Eretz Israel. Berab, under the messianic influence of the era, was a strong proponent of reviving the official Semichah program which would then lead to the forming of a new Sanhedrin (a combination of a supreme court and ruling body). It would have been the first since the destruction of the second temple. However it was never instituted, due to differences with other rabbis and his having to leave Eretz Israel.


1653 JACOB CHRISTIAN BASNAGE (France)

A Protestant pastor, he wrote the first complete history of the Jews. This later served as a basis for the works of Jost and Graetz.


C. 1685 - 1732 JACOB CULI (Eretz Israel-Turkey)

Rabbi and commentator. In addition to his own writings Culi helped edit and publish the writing of the Chief Rabbi of Constantinople, Judah Rosanes (Parashat Derakhim), as well as the works of his grandfather, Moses ibn Habib. Yet his real fame lies in his easy-to-read commentary on the Bible that was originally written in Ladino, Me-Am Lo'ez. This enormously popular commentary brought to the masses, who didn't understand Hebrew, the Midrashic anecdotes and folklore behind each Torah portion. Although he only published a small amount of it in his lifetime, others took up his notes and completed the work after his death. It was later translated into Hebrew and even into English.


C. 1610 JACOB CURIEL ( Koriel) (Portugal- Eretz Israel)

A former pirate, arrived in Eretz Israel. He had served as a captain on a Spanish ship before being arrested by the inquisition for being a crypto-Jew. Curiel aka Diego Perez D'acosta ( was freed by his sailors many of them Conversos (Marranos) whose families had suffered at the hand of the inquisition. Curiel plied the waters of the Caribbean with three ships attacking mostly Spanish vessels. According to Hayyim Vital he became repentant, moved to Safed and is buried near the Ari (Rabbi Isaac Luria).


1697 - 1776 (30 Nissan 5536) JACOB EMDEN (Altona, Germany)

Anti-sabbatianist and rabbinical scholar. He devoted himself to searching out heresies, and succeeded in stamping out mysticism in western Germany. The rabbinical council of Yaroslav later condemned him for his attack on Eybeshutz (in which he had alleged that Eybeshutz had written amulets engraved with the name of Shabbetai Zevi). In spite of this, he was recognized as a scholar and author on Jewish law (Halacha).


1726 - 1791 JACOB FRANK (Podolia, Ukraine)

Last of the Messianic imposters, he considered himself the second person in the Trinity (son). Though he was soon excommunicated, he was still able to live in regal splendor, since the Rabbinate was too weak to crush him. Frank then converted to Christianity while still professing to be the Messiah. His daughter, Eve, carried on the family tradition of proclaiming her father the Messiah until her death in 1811.


1862 September 18, JACOB FRANKEL (USA)

Was appointed as the first Jewish chaplain in the U.S. army by Presidential order. Until now the only chaplains in the U.S. Army were Christian.


1840 JACOB HENLE (Germany)

Published Von den Miasman und Kontagien (On Miasmata and Contagia) in which he proposed that micro organism were the cause of many contagious diseases. Henle (1809–1885) is considered to be the father of modern histology and one of the pioneers of dermatopathology.


1745 - 1815 (9 Av 5575) JACOB ISAAC HOROWITZ (Poland)

Hasidic leader, better known as HaChozeh MiLublin (the Seer of Lublin). He was a disciple of the Maggid of Mezerich and continued his studies under Elimelech of Lizhensk. The Chozeh believed that the tzadik should emphasize the practical needs of his Hasidim rather then only concentrating on their spiritual achievement. This led to a split in the community. His pseudonym was based on legends of his intuitiveness as well as healing.


1600 JACOB JANOW (Lublin, Poland)

Published Tze'enah U-Re'ena (Come forth and Behold), the most popular Yiddish book for women. It is actually a Midrashic commentary on the Bible.


1904 - 1986 JACOB JAVITS (USA)

U.S. Senator. Beginning in the garment industry, he also worked as a janitor and a salesman until he was able to receive his law degree. During the Second World War, he attained the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. Directly after the war Javits was elected to congress for eight years, and in 1956 he was elected to the senate. Javits served for 24 years and was one of the most respected senators of his day.


1848 - 1902 JACOB JOSEPH ( Kovno- NYC)

Rabbi and community leader. Jacob Joseph was the most famous preacher in Lithuania and the pale, before being offered the position as chief rabbi of new York. Despite reservations, he accepted it. Unfortunately, the internal conflicts in the religious community and opposition from without, hampered most of his activities. He died in poverty after suffering a stroke on 1987. In 1903 a yeshiva was opened in his honor. His great grandson Marine Captain Jacob Joseph died in Guadalcanal in 1942.


1680 - 1756 (14 Shvat 5516) JACOB JOSHUA FALK (Cracow-Galicia-Eastern Europe)

Known by the name of his most popular novellae work, Penai Yehoshua (Face of Joshua) on the Talmud (not to be confused with Joshua Heshel Ben Joseph's Pnai Yehosuah on the Shulchan Aruch 1578). After the death of his wife and family in a fire, he decided to apply himself totally to his studies and accepted the post of rabbi in Lemberg. There he fought against the influence of Sabbatianism. He also wrote Sefer Minchat Ani on the Talmud, and Klal Gadol, which deals with the idea of a majority in halachic issues.


1470 - 1541 (23 Sivan 5301) JACOB POLLACK (Prague-Cracow-Eretz Israel)

The first important Polish-Jewish Rabbinic scholar. He helped establish the talmudic method of study called Pilpul. This complicated and often hair-splitting method of explanation originated in southern Germany. It is called mental acrobatics by some, yet it was also responsible for the development of the sharp talmudic mind.


1715 - 1780 JACOB RODRIGUEZ PEREIRE (France)

Pereire was a descendant of a Spanish Converso family and returned to Judaism together with his mother. He is remembered for his pioneering work with the deaf that stressed lip reading. Pereire taught students from all levels of society and became active in Jewish life.


1933 July 25, JACOB ROSENHEIM (Germany)

President of Agudat Israel in Germany pleaded with Lord Melchett of Britain and British Chief Rabbi Hertz not to boycott German goods, calling it "a near crime against humanity". Agudat Israel was afraid that such actions would become provocations and goad Hitler to pursue a harsher policy against the Jews.


1942 September 3, JACOB ROSENHEIM (USA)

President of Agudat Israel received a telegram from Israel Sternbuch, his representative in Switzerland, confirming the mass murder of 100,000 Polish Jews. Rosenheim sent the letter to President Roosevelt, James G. McDonald, the president's advisor on political refugees, and Stepen Wise. McDonald also forwarded it to Eleanor Roosevelt. There was no reply from either Roosevelt.


1822 - 1886 JACOB SAPHIR (Vilna -Jerusalem)

Scholar, linguist, traveler, fundraiser and author. Saphir who wrote Hebrew and Arabic fluently, was also familiar with Latin. He served as an emissary of the Perushim community of Jerusalem raising funds for the building of the Hurvah synagogue. He was one of the first to see and realize the importance of the Cairo Geneizah. Saphir traveled to Yemen where he spent a long time researching and documenting the Jewish community, before traveling to India, Australia and Ceylon. He described his travels in Even Sapir (“Sapphire”) also published as Sefer Maasah Teiman (“Travels to Yemen”). His Iggeret Teman sheinit (“The second Epistle to Yemen”) was instrumental in stopping the career of the false messiah and con man Judah ben Shalom.


1610 - 1695 (4 Iyar 5458) JACOB SASPORTAS (Oran, Morocco-Amsterdam, Holland)

Kabbalist and rabbi and a fierce opponent of Shabbetai Zevi. He served as envoy to the Spanish court in Morocco and later became head of the yeshiva in Amsterdam. In his battle against Sabbatianism he produced Tsitsit Novel Zvi in which he collected vast material, including pamphlets and letters, and answered it in detail.


1889 - 1919 JACOB SVERDLOFF (Russia)

Communist organizer and leader. An early communist activist, he was exiled to a prison camp on an island near the Artic circle. Sverdloff tried to escape 5 times, the last time in a small boat which capsized during a storm. After the Revolution, Stalin recognized his organizational capabilities and appointed him the first secretary of the Central Committee. Sverdloff worked closely with both Stalin and Lenin, ensuring that the Bolshevik faction would be the strongest. In his honor the city Yekaterinburg was renamed Sverdlovsk.


1740 - 1804 (17 Tevet 5565) JACOB WOLF KRANZ OF DUBNO (the Dubno Maggid) (Ukraine)

Scholar, preacher and author. He was renowned for his brilliant composition and use of homiletics. It is told that when the Vilna Gaon was very ill, he sent for the Dubno Maggid to read his interpretations and parables at his bedside. He settled in Vilna at the request of the Vilna Gaon. His parables on the Pentateuch were published in Ohel Yakov (Tent of Jacob).


1758 JACOB ZELIG (Poland)

After a series of blood libels, he was sent to Rome by the Jewish community to convince Pope Benedict XIV to publish a bull against the accusations. Cardinal Ganganelli (Clement XIV) who received, it wrote an unequivocal condemnation of the libels and asked the Holy See to intervene in Poland to stop the accusations.


1891 August 22, - 1973 JACQUES LIPCHITZ, (Lithuania-USA )

Cubist sculptor. Lipchitz did much of his work in stone and bronze. Often with Jewish or biblical themes, he created a sculpture called The Miracles for the creation of the State of Israel. His last work, which was commissioned by Hadassah Hospital on Mt. Scopus, was a six-meter-high bronze The Tree of Life, representing the patriarchs and their descendants.


1819 - 1880 JACQUES OFFENBACH (France)

Composer. Son of a cantor, he composed over one hundred operettas including Tales of Hoffman. His Paris Life, Blue Beard, and Beautiful Helen are the best of French comic operas.


1905 October 22, JAFFA (Eretz Israel)

The first Hebrew high school was opened in Jaffa. Its goal was to provide its student with both a Jewish and secular education totally in Hebrew. It was later named after Herzl and called the Gymnasia Herzliya. It moved to Tel Aviv (1909).


1921 May 2, JAFFA (Eretz Israel)

Arabs rioted, killing forty Jews and wounding two hundred others. The riots soon spread to Tel Aviv, Petah Tikva, Kfar Saba, Hadera, and Rehovot. Though casualties were "relatively" light, the British decided to immediately suspend Jewish immigration and appease the Arabs by "redefining" the borders of the Balfour Declaration.


1638 - 1702 (12 Tevet 5462) JAIR HAYIM BACHARACH (Germany)

Rabbi and Scholar. In 1699 he published his monumental collection of 238 responsa Chavat Yair. (The Tents of Jair) taken from Numbers 32:41. Others say it was in honor of his grandmother Chava, the granddaughter of the Maharal of Prague who was known for her vast talmudic knowledge.


1903 - 1952 JAKOB ROSENFELD aka General Luo (Lemberg - Tel Aviv)

Physician and health minister in the Communist army's provisional government. Rosenfeld a Viennese doctor, fled Germany in 1939, being released after spending time in Dachau and Buchenwald. He found passage to china , where he joined the Chinese communists as a field doctor. He remained as part of the People's Liberation Army until 1949 when he returned to Europe to search for relatives. Unable to get a visa to return to china, he immigrated to Israel.


1857 September 15, JAMES FINN (Eretz Israel)

The second British Consul in Jerusalem, wrote to the Foreign Secretary the Earl of Clarendon offering a plan to settle Jews in agriculture in Eretz Israel to help the land prosper. He proposed "to persuade Jews in a large body to settle here as agriculturalists on the soil ... in partnership with the Arab peasantry”.


1806 JAMES GREEN (Gibraltar)

The British council general of Morocco was requested by the British Jews of Gibraltar, to help annul the decree that no Jew is allowed to appear in Morocco in western clothing. The regulation did not apply to Christians. This denoted the first time that European Jews requested from their country to intercede with a Moslem power. He did so, and the decree was cancelled.


1933 April 8, JAMES GROVER MCDONALD

An American diplomat, met with Hitler, who told him “I will do the thing the rest of the world would like to do. It doesn’t know how to get rid of the Jews. I will show them." On May 1, he met with Roosevelt and warned him about Hitler’s intentions regarding the Jews, also describing a visit he had made to Dachau. FDR facing domestic issues and not wanting any problems with foreign policy made no comment. It is believed that his observations cost him the position of becoming the next ambassador to Germany. He would later become the first United States ambassador to Israel.rnrn


1254 October 6, JAMES I OF ARAGON

In the aftermath of both the burning of the Talmud, and their expulsion from France that year, James confiscated all outstanding Jewish debts " for the salvation of our soul".


1228 JAMES I “ THE CONQUEROR“ ( Aragon)

Under strong pressure from the clergy he issued a number of restrictions against the Jews including holding public office. James (1208-1276)himself ignored his own laws and appointed many Jews as bailiffs, translators, diplomats, and to other administrative positions.This being said there was a strong increase in anti Jewish legislation both by the clergy and by the Cortes Generale the local (courts) legislative bodies. James himself used the anti Jewish pressure to enrich his own coffers as an act" of salvation" (see 1254).rnrnrn


1267 - 1327 JAMES II OF ARAGON

Did more to convince Jews to convert than any other previous Spanish king. This being said, he had excellent personal relationships with many Jews. He also forbade forced conversions, protected them from anti Jewish disturbances, and the jurisdiction of the inquisition. His policies regarding the Jews more or less remained in place until 1348 and the onset of the black plague and the riots.


1942 November 25, JAN KARSKI (Poland - England -USA)

A courier of the Polish underground and an eyewitness to the Holocaust reached England. Karski, who had met with Jewish leaders in Warsaw and had traveled to Belzec, gave details to British officials and directly to President Roosevelt in Washington the following year. Roosevelt decided not to react immediately and didn't mention the Holocaust in any of his press conferences until March 1944.


1946 July 26, JAN MASARYK (Czechoslovakia)

The Czech foreign minister influenced the government to open its borders to Jews wishing to flee Poland. Within three months over 70,000 Jews, using transportation paid for by the Czechs, used this route to get to Eretz Israel.


1940 July 26, JAN ZWARTENDIJK (Lithuania)

The director of the Phillips factory in Lithuania and acting council of the Dutch government in exile , began to issue visas to Curacao. Over the next few weeks that number would reach over 2400. He did this with the approval of L. P. J. De Decker, the Dutch Ambassador in Riga,. He was further helped by Chiune Sugihara (see 1940) the Japanese council, who on their basis issued close to 2,000 transit visas, including about 1000 to shanghai. When the Russian occupied the are in August they closed down his office and he returned to the Netherlands. Zwartendijk was recognized by Yad Vashem as Righteous Among the Nations in 1997.


1943 November, JANOWSKA CAMP (Janow) REVOLT (Lvov)

Although a number of underground groups were formed, they did not unify and many of their leaders were betrayed by informants. Despite this, a number of them tried to fight back when the camp was liquidated. Only a few survived, most being killed by Ukrainian police.


1943 November 19, JANOWSKA CAMP (Janow) REVOLT (Lvov, Ukraine)

Although a number of underground groups were formed they did not unify and many of their leaders were betrayed by informants. Despite this, a number of them tried to fight back when the camp was liquidated. Only a few survived; most were killed by the Ukrainian police.


1878 - 1942 (21 Av 5712) JANUS KORCZAK (Henryk Goldschmidt) (Poland)

Doctor, educator, and director of the Jewish Orphanage of Warsaw. Korczak was a pioneer in modern education and child care. He instituted a children's court run by children in his orphanage, insisting that children have rights and must be treated with respect. During the war he refused to wear the yellow star or "accept" the Nazi invasion. Despite the offer of his Polish friends to help him flee the ghetto, he refused to leave "his orphans", preferring to share their fate in Treblinka.


1901 February 2, - 1987 JASCHA HEIFETZ (Lithuania-USA)

Violinist. He started lessons at age three and debuted at age seven. He is considered by many to be the greatest violinist of the century. Heifetz arranged and transcribed more than one hundred classical and modern compositions.


1941 June 28, JASSY MASSACRE (Romania)

Romanian and German troops murdered thousands of Jews and deported the rest with the active participation of local residents. It is estimated that there were 12,000 victims. Jassy had been considered the capital of Romanian anti-Semitism during the late 19th century when Alexander Cuza, the Romanian nationalist and anti-Semite, taught at the university. After the Antonescu government seized power in November 1940, Jassy became the "capital of the Iron Guard."


1273 JATIVA ARAGON (Spain)

The first known paper mill in Europe was built and run by Jews.


1712 - 1778 JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU (Geneva, Switzerland)

One of the leaders of the Romanticists, which was a reaction to the philosophy of Rationalism. He was profoundly influenced by Spinoza (1632-77).


C. 1776 - C. 1823 JEAN LAFITTE

Pirate and adventurer. Lafitte is mostly known for helping General Andrew Jackson in the war of 1812. Evidently his mother and maternal grandmother (Zora Nadrima), were crypto Jews, who had fled to France after his grandfather was executed by the inquisition.


1786 JEDDA (Arabia)

The small mostly Yemenite Jewish community in Jedda was expelled and not allowed to return.


C. 1660 - 1746 JEHIEL BEN SOLOMON HEILPRIN (Lithuania)

A scholar and historian as well as rabbinical leader and dean of the yeshiva in Minsk, he is best remembered for his Seder ha-Dorot, which set the talmudic era in order, both chronologically and biographically.


342 - 420 JEROME

Early church father of Christian parentage. His major work was a Latin translation of the Bible known as the Vulgate. Jerome believed that Mosaic law was a trick by G-d to destroy the Jews.


1808 December 1, JEROME BONAPARTE

Granted full emancipation to the Jews in Westphalia.


1885 January 27, - 1945 JEROME KERN (USA)

Songwriter. One of America's great composers of popular songs, Kern wrote over 1,000 songs for more than 100 shows and films. He won two Academy Awards, one for The Last Time I Saw Paris and the other for The Way You Look Tonight. Other famous songs include Smoke Gets In Your Eyes and from his famous collaboration with Oscar Hammerstein in Show Boat, Ol? Man River.


1926 March 16, JERRY LEWIS (Joseph Levitch) (USA)

Comedian, actor, writer and director. Jerry Lewis made his debut at age five in New York's Borscht Circuit and at age 15, perfected a comic routine known as his "Record Act" - miming and silently mouthing lyrics of operatic and popular songs to a phonograph located off-stage. In 1946, Lewis formed a very successful partnership with Dean Martin which lasted 10 years. They made 16 films together sandwiched with nightclub, TV, and radio appearances. After the breakup, Lewis continued his successful acting career adding screenwriting and directing into his repertoire. Lewis' credits include the films Geisha Boy (1958), Bellboy (1960), The Nutty Professor (1963) and The King of Comedy (1983). He won the French Legion of Honor in 1984 and was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1977 for his tireless efforts in his fight against Muscular Dystrophy.


720 JERUSALEM

Caliph Omar II, banned Jewish worship on the Temple Mount. Jews were forced to pray outside the walls of the mount or in a covered staircase called ha-Meara – the Cave, which was near an ancient gate, known today as Warrens gate. The prohibition regarding Jewish worship on the Mount remains in effect today.


1010 JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

Caliph al-Hakim of Egypt destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. The French Christian "Historian" Raoul Glaber (who had previously recorded that the Jews were the "Habitual ally of the Devil") claimed that the Jews were responsible for this. As a result, Jews were expelled from Limoges and other French towns.


1218 JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

Thirty-one years after Saladin's conquest of Jerusalem there were still few Jews there. Jerusalem did have three synagogues though. One was for Jews from Ashkelon which included the refugees from Jerusalem, one for Jews from North Africa and one for Jews from France. Most of the Jews remained on the coast, especially in Acco (Acre).


1555 JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

Officially had 324 Jewish householders and 13 bachelors.


1856 JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

Population consisted of 4,000 Sephardim (Orientals) and 1,700 Ashkenazim (Europeans).


1860 November 3, JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

The first neighborhood outside the old city wall was dedicated. The site was purchased by Sir Moses Montefiore five years earlier and was known as Mishkenot Sha'ananim. Although there was initial resistance to leaving the "security" of the Old City walls, it soon led to the establishment of dozens of new neighborhoods.


1920 April 4 - 5, JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

Anti-Jewish riots. Five Jews were killed and two hundred and eleven wounded. Vladimir Jabotinsky and others were arrested for organizing a self-defense league.


614 JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

After a 20 day siege, the city fell to the Persians under the General Romizanes. 37,000 Christians were deported. Jews were given permission to run the city. At that time there were approximately 150,000 Jews living in 43 settlements throughout Eretz Israel.


617 JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

After only three years the Persians reneged on their promises and forbade Jews to settle within a three mile radius of the city.


638 JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

Omar accepted the Christian surrender and agreed to the Christian Patriarch Sophronnas' demand not to permit Jews to return to Jerusalem. Despite his agreement he soon allowed 70 Tiberian families to settle in Jerusalem.


70 (9 Av 3830) JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

Fell to Titus after 4 years of fighting. The Temple was destroyed. According to Josephus, some 1,100,000 Jews perished during the revolt and another 97,000 were taken captive.


136 JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

Hadrian built a pagan temple on the site of the destroyed Temple. He renamed the city Aelia Capatolina and forbade Jews to enter into the city.


1009 October 18, JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the Fatimid Caliph of Egypt destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. The French monk and "historian" Raoul ( Rodulfus) Glaber (who had previously recorded that the Jews were the "Habitual ally of the Devil") claimed that the Jews were responsible. As a result, Jews were expelled from Limoges and other French towns. Although it was rebuilt by Constantine IX in 1048 it served as one of the “ excuses” for the first crusade.


1843 May, JERUSALEM CONVERSIONS

After a three year deliberation, two former rabbis of the Perushim community, Eliezer Luria and Benjamin Goldberg were baptized by the Anglican Bishopric mission. A third Abraham Nissim Walfin withdrew before the actual conversion. Their conversion led to a ban (not always kept), on any contact with the Anglican mission. This included medical services which happened to provide New Testament bibles in Hebrew by every bedside. It took a further ten years for Jewish hospital to be established (the Rothschild hospital) in July 1854.


1914 JESSE LASKY (USA)

And his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish (Goldwyn), established the first motion picture corporation in Hollywood.


1788 JEWISH EMANCIPATION (France)

On order of King Louis XVI, Chretien Guillaume De Malesherbes began to prepare a memorandum including recommendations regarding the situation of the Jews . His conclusions helped pave the way to their eventual freedom. Malesherbes believed that their emancipation and the weakening of the Jewish community, would lead to their conversion.


1947 February 7, JEWISH AGENCY

The Jewish Agency, a world-wide organization centered in Israel, was officially founded. It was dedicated to the establishment of Israel as the Jewish Homeland, and to the encouragement and fulfillment of Aliyah (Jewish Immigration) from around the world. The Agency later became active in Jewish- Zionist education and serving as a bridge between the Diaspora and Israel.


1929 August 11, JEWISH AGENCY (Zurich, Switzerland)

Was created at the 16th Zionist Congress, to include non-Zionists in the creation of the State. Among them were Louis Marshall, Leon Blum and Felix Warburg.


1948 March 11, JEWISH AGENCY BUILDING (Jerusalem, Eretz Israel)

Was bombed. A car driven by the chauffeur for the American consulate parked next to the building which served as the headquarters for the Yishuv. A guard, seeing that the car blocked the road, moved it to a side wing. Twelve people were killed and forty- four wounded. Since the U.N. resolution in November, around 850 Jews had been killed by Arab terror.


1925 JEWISH AGRICULTURE (Argentina)

A total of 33,135 Jews worked in agriculture, 20,382 of them were farmers.


1917 October 12, JEWISH ANTI –ZIONISTS ( Britain)

Consisting of Claude Montifiore, Leonard L. Cohen and Phillip Magnus, wrote a memorandum to Sir Maurice Hankey, Secretary of the War Cabinet. They were coached and encouraged by Edwin Samuel Montagu the Secretary of State for India and a well known anti-Zionist. They advised deleting any mention of a national home for the Jewish people.


1942 April 6, JEWISH ANTI-FACIST COMMITTEE (Russia)

Was founded, with its goal being to drum up Jewish support for the Soviet war effort. Although it was headed by the famous actor Solomon Mikholes, it was actually the initiative of the Soviet government. Other important members were Ilya Ehrenburg (the Russian author), Solomon Lozovsky, a member of the Communist Central Committee, and David Bergelson (a well known Yiddish writer). Mikohels was killed by the secret police in January 1948. Bergelson and Lozovsky were liquidated by Stalin in 1952. Only Ehrenburg survived, often clashing with Soviet authorities.


624 - 627 JEWISH ARABIAN TRIBES

Were attacked by Mohammed. These were some twenty Jewish tribes had living in the Hijaz (western) Arabia for centuries. Legend has it that they were sent by Joshua to fight the Amalakites. Other claim that any of them settle at Yatrib (Yathrib) later known as Medina after the destruction of the first temple . The majority immigrated to Arabia after the Roman persecutions in Eretz Israel. Some of the tribes worked in agriculture others in crafts like goldsmithing. Two of the tribes (Qurayza and Nadir) considered themselves al kahinan )kohanim) One by one they were either expelled or destroyed for refusing to convert to Mohammedanism. Three of the strongest tribes are known as Banu Nadir (Nadhir), Banu Qaynuqa (Kainuka) and Banu Qurayza (Eruzia).


1451 September 21, JEWISH BADGE (Arhhem, Holland)

Cardinal Nicolaus de Cusa ordered all Jews to be registered, and to wear a badge on their outer clothes.


1724 JEWISH CENSUS BOHEMIA / Moravia (Czech lands)

30,000 Jews lived in Bohemia and 20,000 in Moravia. Prague had a Jewish population of between 11-13,000 people (almost 30% of the city) making it the largest Ashkenazi city in Europe. The largest Sephardic population was in Thessalonica which had approximately 18,000 Jews.


1815 - 1863 Jewish civil rights lost (Corfu)

After enjoying full rights under the French (1797-1799 and 1805-15), Corfu became a protectorate of England. As a result Jews were forbidden to practice in the courts, and lost many of their rights. On June 2, 1864 Corfu was annexed to Greece. Officially Jews were granted equal rights, although in reality, they were prevented from holding any public office and often attacked at polling stations


1891 September 11, JEWISH COLONIAL ASSOCIATION (France-England)

Was officially established by Baron de Hirsch. Other shareholders included, among others, Rothschild, Cassel, and Goldsmid. De Hirsh himself donated two million pounds and incorporated the Association in London. His plan was to promote migration of Russian and European Jews and settle them in agricultural areas in countries around the world.


1899 JEWISH COLONIAL TRUST (England-Eretz Israel)

The financial arm of the World Zionist Organization was set up in England by Herzl. Its goal was to encourage Jewish settlement and projects which would "advance the Zionist cause". One of its subsidiaries, the Anglo-Palestine Company, later became Bank Leumi. Other investment helped create the Israel Electric Cooperation and Bank Hapoalim.


1889 JEWISH COLONIZATION OF ARGENTINA

First began. Although Jews had been living in Argentina since the beginning of the 17th century they only received rights in 1853. To a great extent this was achieved through the efforts of Baron de Hirsch's Jewish Colonial Association (JCA). A census taken two years earlier showed 366 Jews in Buenos Aires.


C. 350 JEWISH COMMUNITY IN BUKHARA (Central Asia)

The first definite evidence of Jewish presence in Bukhara is related in the Babylonian Talmud (Av. Zar. 31b) regarding an amora (Samuel bar Bisna) who lived in the town of Margwan, i.e., Margiana, the medieval Merv (now the region of Mari, the Soviet Turkmen republic). There are some archeological remains which suggest a Jewish presence as early as the first century. The Jews from the area of Tajikistan were later referred to as Bukharim, named for the Emir of Bukhara.


1919 JEWISH CONCILIATION BOARD (USA)

Was founded in New York. It was composed of Orthodox, Conservative and Reform representatives. Cases were tried in which both parties agreed to abide by the decision of the court. There were no extensive legal technicalities and a common ground was found between litigants.


1756 JEWISH COUNCIL AT SATANOW (Podolia, Poland)

Convened to ratify a ban against the Frankists.


1896 JEWISH DAILY FORWARD (USA)

A Yiddish newspaper was established by Abraham Cahan. The paper soon emerged as the leading labor daily in New York.


1919 August 31, JEWISH DEFENSE ORGANIZATION

Thirty five members of the Jewish Defense Organization were disarmed and shot after the Ukrainian National Army recaptured Kiev from the Bolsheviks. As an organized unit, the Jews had played an important role in the defense of Kiev.


1901 - 1905 JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA (USA)

Was produced by Dr. Isadore Singer in Philadelphia.


1942 July 28, JEWISH FIGHTING ORGANIZATION (ZOB) (Warsaw, Poland)

(Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa) was formed at a meeting of HaShomer HaTzair, Dror, and Poalae Zion, Akiva, at HeHalutz headquarters. It was based on the Anti-Fascist Block which was supported by the Bund and led to their joining. Although the Revisionists (ZZW) did not join, they were in contact to coordinate efforts.


1516 JEWISH GHETTO (Venice, Italy)

Was established. It was called the Ghetto Nuovo or the New Foundry. The basis for the ghetto is found in the Cannon of the third Lateran Council (1179), forbidding Jews and Christians to live together. In France it was called the Carriére des Juifs, and in Germany the Judengasse or Judenstadt. The ghetto era was to last almost 300 years, though later also revived by the Nazis.


1922 JEWISH INSTITUTE OF RELIGION (USA)

Was founded by Stephen Wise in New York for the purpose of training rabbis without a "partisan stamp".


C. 400 JEWISH KINGDOM IN ARABIA

During a siege on Yathrib (Medina) Abu Karib Asad Kamil (c. 385-420), a Himyarite (Southern Arabian) king became ill. Reportedly he was saved by two Jews in the besieged city and in return agreed to lift the siege and converted to Sadduceean Judaism. He succeeded in conquering much of the Arabian peninsula together with Jewish tribes and pagan allies.


1918 September 22, JEWISH LEGION

Defeated a Turkish army at Umm Esh-shert Ford.


1944 August 19, JEWISH MARQUIS (French Resistance movement) (France)

The Marc Haguenau company (named for the Jewish resistance leader killed in 1943 who had been a leader of the "sixth") led by Robert Gamzon, together with help from an American sabotage team, blew up a German troop train near Mazamet. After the initial blast, an intense firefight ensued. By dawn the Germans fearfully surrendered to the calls "Wir Sind Juden" ("We are Jews"). The next day they participated in the German surrender (3,500 soldiers) in Casters.


1939 November, JEWISH MILITARY ORGANIZATION (ZZW) (Poland)

Major Henry Iwanski, a Polish officer, met with Lieut. David Appelbaum, Henryk Lifszyc, Kalman Mendelson and Yehuda Bialoskara, all former Jewish officers of the defeated Polish army and members of the Betar-affiliated Brit Hachayal. They decided to create an underground organization which was first called Swit. It soon developed into the ZZW (Zydowski Zwiazek Wojskowy) led by Appelbaum to fight the Germans and received their first weapons. The ZZW was mostly comprised of Zionist revisionists and Betarim - followers of Ze'ev Jabotinsky. The ZZW played a vital role in the Warsaw ghetto uprising as well as in the forests as partisans.


1901 December 30, (19 Tevet 5662) JEWISH NATIONAL FUND (Keren Kayemet L'Yisrael) (Switzerland-Eretz Israel)

Was created at the 5th Zionist Congress in Basel. Conceived of by Dr. H. Schapira, it was dedicated to purchasing and reclaiming land in order to create a national homeland. The land was bought and leased to settlers for a period of forty-nine years. This was in accordance with Jewish law in which land is leased only until Jubilee (forty-nine years) and then returned to its original owner. Today the JNF is actively involved in afforestation, water reserves, and the environment, as well as education.


1941 December, JEWISH PARTISANS IN BELGIUM

Formed their own groups calling it "The Committee for Jewish Defense." Aside from anti-German actions, they campaigned against voluntarily appearing for deportation to "work camps" which were published by the Judenrat, and saved Jews by hiding 3000 children and 10,000 adults.


C. 1750 JEWISH POPULATION OF POLAND

Just prior to its division between Russia, Prussia, and Austria, Poland's Jewish population reached 430,000 (excluding Eastern Galicia). In Lithuania there were 157,300 Jews.


1888 June 3, JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA (JPS) WAS FOUNDED (USA)

Its purpose was and is to publish books of Jewish interest in English. Among its hundreds of publications are Graetz's, Dubnow's and Baron's History of the Jews, and Ginsburg's Legends of the Jews. Other important authors included Israel Zangwill, Leo Baeck, Cecil Roth, Jacob R. Marcus, and Louis Finkelstein. They have also published the American Jewish Yearbook for nearly 100 years (1899).


1170 JEWISH QUARTER (TUDELA)

Local Jews were moved to the citadel. The Jews promised to defend it against the kings’ enemies and in return were permitted to us it also against anti- Jewish mobs. Furthermore anyone who attacked the Jews; if killed or injured had acted at their own peril. The settlement of Jews in forts was not unusual in 10th - 12th century Spain.


1476 JEWISH RIGHTS ABOLISHED (Madrigal,Spain)

Ferdinand and Isabella abolished the Jewish aljamas (the self governing Jewish communities) and reaffirmed the anti Jewish edicts of 1380 and 1412 including segregation of Jews and Moslems from the Christian community.


1804 December 9, JEWISH STATUTE (Russia)

After two years of deliberation, Alexander I published legislation regarding the future of the Jews in Russia. Based on the premise that the Jews (especially those absorbed from Poland) were undesirable elements, it was declared that efforts should be made to transform them into "productive" citizens. On the one hand, Jews were allowed to attend university, open their own secular schools, and become involved in industry. On the other hand, in the villages they were severely restricted with regard to occupations and land ownership. This was part of his policy to cast blame on the Jews (rather then on the Polish nobles) for the exploitation of the peasants.


1416 JEWISH SYNOD (Bologna, Italy)

Tried to formulate a plan of defense against Vincent Ferrer.


1216 JEWISH SYNOD AT ST. GILLES (France)

Representatives of the Jewish communities in Marseilles and Narbonne convened the synod in order to prevent the implementation of some of the decisions of the Fourth Lateran Council. The synod did not have a major impact except on some local levels. Its importance was rather in the fact that different communities united in an effort to defend their position vis a vis the Church.


1886 JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY (USA)

Was founded in New York by Dr. Sabato Morais. The goal of the Jewish Theological Seminary was the training of rabbis and teachers in traditional Judaism. It is generally considered to lean more towards Conservatism than Orthodoxy.


1887 January 2, JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY ASSOCIATION (USA)

The educational and spiritual center of Conservative Judaism. It was opened under the leadership of Sabato Morais. Morais, a rabbi of Congregation Mikve Israel in Philadelphia, sought to train rabbis who would help preserve Jewish traditions which he felt were being eroded by the "reformers" and their Pittsburgh Platform. In 1902, under Solomon Schechter, the Seminary was reorganized and the name changed to JTS.


1941 September, JEWISH UNIVERSITY (ALGERIA)

After the mass suspension of Jewish university lecturers an effort was made to start a Jewish university. Jewish students who were also banned from attending regular universities flocked to the school. They offered courses in Latin, medicine, physics, chemistry, French and English. By December, 1941 the school was forced by the local Vichy authorities to cease all activities.


1917 April 9, JEWISH WELFARE BOARD

Was established to provide for the social and religious requirements of Jewish soldiers. After the war, it expanded to care for community needs, initiating Jewish Community Centers, and Young Men's and Women's Hebrew Associations.


1273 - 1410 JEWISH WOMEN PHYSICIANS IN NAPLES

The names of 24 women surgeons and 15 women practitioners (not midwives), are known most of them Jewish.


1496 March 12, JEWS ARE EXPELLED FROM STYRIA, AUSTRIA

By Emperor Maximilian I (1459-1519), but only after the government of Styria agreed to pay him 38,000 florins to compensate him for his loss of revenue from the Jews. In his justification he wrote that Jews have "repeatedly insulted and desecrated the holy sacrament, tortured and killed Christian children and used their blood …. cheated people, and impoverished and ruined many noble and other families..."


1281 January 19, JEWS ARRESTED IN CASTILE

Alfonso X arrested the leaders of the Jewish community and demanded a exorbitant ransom paid per day. One of his Jewish tax collectors Zag De la Maleha (Isaac ibn Zadok) had raised money for the army but didn’t prevent Sancho, Alfonso's son, from appropriating the money to pay queen Violante's depts. When Alfonso lost the battle, he had De la Maleha killed and others including Todros Abulafia arrested, until the ransom was paid. During the last years of Alfonzo's reign and under the influence of the church, his treatment of the Jews underwent change for the worse.


1615 April 20, (21 Nissan 7th day of Passover) JEWS BANISHED FROM WORMS (Germany)

With the encouragement of the Guilds, the Jews were forced from the city during the holiday and the synagogue destroyed. The following year on January 20, (1st of Sh'vat, 5376) they were allowed to return to their homes and rebuild the synagogue. The community instituted a public fast day to be held each year on the last day of the month of Tevet (the month before Sh’vat). This commemoration remained in effect for generations.


1916 June 8, JEWS BANNED FROM PRAYING AT WAILING WALL

Turkish Syrian military Governor Ahmed Djemal Pasha (1872-1922), decided to ban Jews from praying at the Western Wall in Jerusalem eventually cordoning off the area. Nine months later he offered to retract his ban upon payment of 100,000 Francs. He was later accused of helping oversee the Armenian genocide and was finally assassinated by Armenians while working for the Soviets in Tbilisi.


1761 March 4, JEWS EXPELLED FROM LUBECK (Germany)

At the behest of the guilds. The following year only one Jew was allowed to live in Lubeck, and this only after paying a heavy fee. As far back as the 16th century (except for a few years during Napoleons time (1810), Jewish residence was for the most part prohibited. This didn’t change until the revolution of 1848.


1483 January 1, JEWS EXPELLED FROM ANDALUSIA

Including Seville and Cordova . Ferdinand knew that this half measure would give him support in the south in his war against Granada, and yet not totally alienate the Jews whom he still needed. This was a foretaste of the edict of 1492 which mentions this expulsion.


1788 JEWS IN POLAND AND LITHUANIA

The number of Jews residing in Poland and Lithuania was estimated at well over 900,000.


1493 January 12, JEWS WERE EXPELLED FROM SICILY

Sicily became a province of Aragon in 1412. Approximately 37,000 Jews had to leave Sicily. Despite an invitation during the 18th century, Jews, except in extremely small numbers, never returned.


1832 November 3, JOACHIM LELEWEL (Poland)

A non-Jewish Polish revolutionist and historian. He called on the Jewish people to join in a revolution. He was influenced by Bartlomiej Beniowski, a Jewish Polish revolutionary into calling on Poles to help Jews to establish a homeland in Eretz Israel.


1560 - 1640 (20 Adar 5400) JOEL SIRKES (the Bach) (Lublin, Poland)

One of the great Polish talmudic scholars. His halachic commentary on the Tur (1270-1343 Jacob ben Asher - the Baal Haturim) called Bait Chadash (New House) traced each law to its source in the Talmud. Sirkes was critical of those who relied solely on the Shulchan Aruch for halachic decisions rather than the Talmud and the Geonim.


1696 JOHANN PETER SPAETH ( Vienna - Amsterdam )

Converted to Judaism in taking the name Moses Germanus Spaeth (c.1643-1701) was born Catholic, converted to Lutheranism , then reconverted to Catholicism before eventually converting to Judaism. He wrote numerous theological works both against Catholicism and defending it, a fact which made it difficult for some in the Jewish community to accept the depth of his commitment, despite the risks he took in converting.


1861 October 26, JOHANN PHILIP REISS (1834-1874) (Germany)

Invented and exhibited the telephone at a conference of physicians in Giessen (15 years before Bell). Unfortunately, due to his poor health and a lack of financial resources, he was not able to commercialize on his invention. In Europe he was recognized as the inventor of the telephone.


1857 JOHANNES FRUTIGER ARRIVED IN ERETZ ISRAEL

As head of the Chrischona Mission. Frutiger a Swiss businessman and banker hoped to invest and use his profits for the mission. Frutiger (1836-1899) eventually opened a bank “Bankhaus J. Frutiger & Co”. Together with Shalom Konstrum and Joseph Navon, he established the Mahane Yehuda neighborhood in 1887 and Abu Tor a few years later. He helped finance many other projects, including Mea Shearim, and the Jerusalem Jaffa railroad.


1818 JOHN ADAMS (1735-1826) (USA)

Statesman and President. In a letter to Mordecai Manuel Noah, he wrote: "I wish your nation may be admitted to all the privileges of citizens in every country of the world." Regarding the re-establishment of a Jewish state, he wrote in the same year: "I really wish the Jews again in Judea an independent nation."


1230 JOHN ASEN II (Czar of the Bulgars) (Eastern Europe)

Defeated Theodore Ducas Angelus of Epirus (N.W. Greece). Theodore, who had initiated many anti-Jewish laws and stolen Jewish property, was given over to two Jews to "put out his eyes". When they, having pity on him, refused to do so, they were thrown off a cliff.


1509 - 1564 JOHN CALVIN (France-Switzerland)

Founded his own form of Protestantism which led to Puritanism in England. Calvinism spread to the Netherlands, where its humanism helped establish a refuge for Spanish and Portuguese Jews. Although he often accused his opponents of Judaizing - and one Servetus was actually burned at the stake due to a dispute with him - Calvin placed unusual emphasis on the Old Testament and the Ten Commandments.


1452 JOHN CAPISTRANO (Germany)

Convinced the Bavarian Dukes to expel the Jews from their Duchies.


1649 JOHN CASIMIR (Poland)

Ascended the Polish throne and negotiated a truce with Chmielniki. One of the Provisions included the expulsion of all Jews in Cossack lands. However, Casimir did allow forcibly converted Jews to return to Judaism.


1350 - 1396 JOHN I (Aragon, Spain)

Son of Peter(Pedro)IV, known before his coronation as the Infante(crown prince) Don Juan. Although prior to his reign (1387-1396) he was in the forefront of anti-Jewish agitation, he adopted a somewhat less belligerent policy as king.


1379 JOHN I OF CASTILE (Spain)

A Jewish advisor to his father, Joseph Pickon, was condemned to death by a rabbinical court for informing and treason on the day of his coronation. John was so incensed that he ordered the court executed and forbade Jewish courts to condemn anyone to capital punishment or expulsion.


1386 - 1456 JOHN OF CAPISTRANO (Giovanni da Capistrano) (Italy)

Nicknamed "Scourge of the Jews". A Franciscan monk, considered it an obligation and a privilege to persecute the Jews. As such, for the next 40 years, he traveled throughout Italy even reaching Bohemia. John of Capistrano acted as an agent of the Church, attacking Jews and heretics and did his best to undermine their positions. He did not hesitate to chastise the pope on occasion for being too lenient. He even convinced the Queen of Naples to cancel any rights given to the Jews and to reinstate all anti-Jewish measure, although this was short-lived.


1385 JOHN OF CASTILE (Spain)

Enforced previous anti-Jewish legislation.


1714 JOHN TOLAND (England)

Published anonymously his Reasons for Naturalizing the Jews in Great Britain and Ireland on the Same Footing with all Other Nations. Toland, an Irish born deist (a Biblical rationalist movement), believed that the naturalization of foreign-born Jews would encourage foreign-born Jews to settle in England.


1924 JOHNSON ACT (USA)

Immigration quotas were reduced to two percent of the number of foreign born persons of each nationality that was present in 1890. As a result, immigration was reduced to a trickle. Between 1933-41 the same amount of German Jews (157,000) entered the USA as entered in 1906.


1944 September 28, JOINT DISTRIBUTION COMMITTEE (Slovakia)

Represented by Saly Meyer leader of the Swiss Jewish community, and Rudolph Kastzner offered fifteen million Swiss francs to save the remaining Slovak Jews. The offer was dismissed despite the fact that Romania, Finland, and Bulgaria had already surrendered and the fate of the war was sealed.


1924 JOINT DISTRIBUTION COMMITTEE

The Joint agreed to donate funds to help the Russian government resettle Jews in the Ukraine. Fewer than fifteen thousand were actually resettled.


C. 1200 - 1263 (28 Cheshvan 5024) JONAH BEN ABRAHAM GERONDI (Spain)

Rabbi, Talmudist, and moralist. Gerondi, though an exceptional scholar, is famed as a "father of the virtues". He took to task all who were guilty of immorality, ignoring the poor, slander, and social injustice. In addition to his commentaries and novellae he is famed for his ethical works Iggeret Teshuvah (Letter of Repentance), Sefer ha-Yirah (The Book of Fear), and especially Sha'arei Teshuvah (Gates of Repentance) which has been translated into English and is widely printed today.


C. 988 - C. 1050 JONAH IBN JANAH (Spain)

Physician and Hebrew philologist. He wrote a number of books including one on remedies Kitab al-Talkhis. Ibn Janah is considered the greatest Hebrew philologist of his time. His major work on grammar written in about 1040 was Kitab al-Tanqihor- Sefer ha-Dikduk (Book of Minute Research). It was the first complete clarification of Hebrew vocabulary and grammar, listing most of the roots and their definitions.


1914 - 1995 JONAS EDWARD SALK (USA)

Biologist and epidemiologist, he created the Salk poliomyelitis vaccine (1955). His work, together with that of Albert Sabin who later developed an oral vaccine, drove this paralyzing disease from much of the world. In recognition, he received a Presidential Citation and the Congressional Medal for Distinguished Achievement.


1690 - 1764 (21 Elul 5524) JONATHAN EYBESHUTZ (Poland-Bohemia)

Kabbalist, author and rabbi. He became head of the Prague yeshiva at the age of twenty-one and was considered a brilliant authority on many subjects. Eybeshutz came under the influence of Sabbatianism and was later forced to publicly repudiate his views. He accepted a position as the rabbi of three communities at the same time: Altona, Hamburg and Wandesbeck.


73 JONATHAN THE WEAVER (Libya)

Convinced the poorer Jews of Cyrene to revolt by promising them as a "prophet" that he would walk them through the desert. The Roman Governor, L. Valerius Catullus, had them executed. At the same time the Governor also murdered a few thousand wealthy Jews and appropriated their property.


700 JOSE BAR JOSE (HaYatom)

First known payytan or liturgical poet, he was known for his New Year and Day of Atonement pieces. Some of the prayers date back to talmudic times or even earlier. This "poet" added to and completed many of the daily and special prayers. Most of his compositions are devoid of rhyme and without meter. At first, not all talmudic scholars welcomed these additions, but eventually many of his writings were included in the siddur (prayer book), although some were only adopted by specific communities.


1591 JOSE SOLOMON DELMEDIGO (Crete)

Rabbi, encyclopedist and physician. Delmegido was a pupil of Galileo. He wrote over 30 works on a great variety of scientific subjects including math, geometry, chemistry, mechanics, philosophy, and medicine.


C. 1834 - 1904 JOSEF HAYYIM Al-Hakham (Baghdad, Persia)

Jewish leader, Halachist and Chief Rabbi of Baghdad aka Ben Ish Ḥai. Joseph Hayyim is still renown today as one of the premier Halachists of the Sephardic community. He authored about 60 books on all aspects of Judaism; specifically halacha (" Rav Pe'alim") and aggadah ("Ben Yehoyada and Benayahou") (the part of the Talmud which does not deal with religious law). His major work was Ben Ish Chai ("Son of Man (who) Lives"), which discusses the weekly portion of the Torah mixed with practical halacha and Kabbalah.


1942 September 3, JOSEF KAPLAN (Poland)

One of the founders of the ZOB (Jewish Fighting Organization) was arrested for forging documents. Kaplan was a leader in the HaShomer HaTzair movement in Warsaw. He was requested by his movement not to emigrate and instead return to Warsaw. He was killed on September 11, 1942.


1938 September 28, JOSEF LIPSKI ( Germany)

The Polish ambassador to Germany, met with Hitler who discussed the idea of helping Poland forcibly repatriate Jews to overseas colonial reservations under German administration. Lipski was enthusiastic about his idea, and reported as much to Josef Beck the Foreign minister.


1480 - 1554 JOSEL (JOSEPH) OF ROSHEIM (Germany)

Shtadlan (Court Jew) of Germany. The Shtadlan's job was to intercede with the authorities on behalf of the Jews. In 1514 he and other Jews were charged with torturing the host but were released. Josel dedicated himself to intervening with various rulers. In 1520 he succeeded in obtaining a letter from Charles V protecting the Jews. He published a defense against the attacks of Martin Luther. Josel succeeded in blocking anti-Jewish legislation and defending Jews against charges of ritual murder countless times.


1538 - 1639 JOSEPH (di) TRANI ( Greece

Rabbi and Scholar known as the MaHarit . He authored a major responsa entitled She’elot u-Teshuvot as well as novella on parts of the Talmud.


1785 September 14, JOSEPH ABRAHAM STEBLICKI (Upper Silesia)

Entered the synagogue in his town of Nikolai (then part of Germany) on Yom Kippur to pray with the rest of the congregation. Steblicki (c. 1726-1807) born catholic, was the town's treasure and a respected member of the city council. He had begun studying Judaism five years earlier mostly in Cracow. Since no one was willing to do the circumcision, he did it on himself under the guidance of a Rabbi who arrived from Cracow. Steblicki told no one till that date about his conversion. He was investigated by authorities since conversion to Judaism was against the law. Due to his reputation, the support of his family, and the determination that the Jewish community had no part in his conversion he was not prosecuted. Instead he was declared mentally imbalanced, and therefore not even required to pay the mandatory Jewish tax.


940 - 1006 JOSEPH ALBARADANI (Persia)

The first famous cantor, known as the great hazzan of Bagdhad. Albaradani also composed several introductional poems known as reshuyyot. His sons and his grandson were famous as well. They also served in the great synagogue of Baghdad.


1380 - 1444 JOSEPH ALBO (Spain)

Philosopher and one of the main defenders of Judaism at the disputation in Tortosa. His philosophy was based on the premise that salvation is the main aim in life. His main work, Ikkarim (Principles), was much criticized because of its similarity to the Christian doctrine of salvation. He also disagreed with Maimonides on the centrality of the Messiah to Judaism.


1679 JOSEPH ATHIAS (Amsterdam)

Published a Yiddish translation of the Bible. He began his printing house in 1658.


1544 JOSEPH BAR YAKAR (Ichenhausen, Germany)

Translated a Siddur (prayer book) into Yiddish making it one of the oldest extant.rn


1160 - 1226 Joseph ben Judah Aknin ( Barcelona -Fez)

A leading Educator and student of Maimonides, He wrote a number of works on the Talmud, theology, and poetry. In his book Healing of the Ailing Soul (Tibb al-Nufūs), he set out strict standards for teachers. Aside from putting strong emphasis on the moral and behavioral conduct of the teacher , he determined that school curriculum should include reading writing and grammar as well as poetry and music and. Talmud was to be taught at age 15 followed by secular sciences.


1488 - 1575 (13 Nissan 5335) JOSEPH CARO (Safed)

A student of the Ari, he published his code of Jewish laws in 1567 after thirty-two years of work on Rav Jacob ben Asher's Arbah Turim. He called his work the Bet Yoseph (House of Joseph). It is better known as the Shulchan Aruch (Prepared Table) since it made every Jewish law available to everyone. Unfortunately, like Maimonides, he was criticized for placing religious growth in "hibernation". His death marked the end of the Rishonim (first commentators) and the beginning of the period of the Acharonim (last) - which continues to the present time.


1903 - 1993 JOSEPH DOV SOLOVEITCHIK, "the Rav" (Poland-USA)

Rabbi, philosopher and scholar. Beginning as a young talmudic scholar, he received his doctorate in philosophy at the University of Berlin. He immigrated to the USA with his wife Tonya who had a doctorate in education. Soloveitchik founded the first Jewish day school in New England and in 1941 succeeded his father as professor of Talmud at Yeshiva University. He was offered but declined to become the Chief Rabbi in Israel (1959). Though reluctant at first to publish his writings, he had a profound affect on Orthodox Jewry. Among his books and essays are Ish ha-Halacha (The man of Halacha), The Lonely Man of Faith, Al ha-Teshuvah (On Repentance), and Be-Sod ha-Yachad (Aloneness and Togetherness).


1942 May 25, JOSEPH FELDMAN (Germany)

Held the rank of colonel in the Red Army. He was asked to go to Germany and set up an underground among Russian POWs. In April 1943, the Brotherhood of Prisoners of War (BZV) planned an audacious attack in Munich itself. Unfortunately, the Gestapo arrested German anti-Nazis who knew of their existence. Feldman was eventually caught and died on March 10, 1944, refusing to give over any information even after being tortured repeatedly.


1077 - 1141 JOSEPH HA-LEVI BEN ME’IR IBN MIGASH (SPAIN)

One of the most brilliant Talmudic scholars of his generation. Ibn Migsash studied under Alfasi (the Rif), who chose him to take over his position, despite the fact that Alfasi’ own son was also a scholar. He served as head of his Yeshiva for 38 years. Among his pupils were Maimon the father of Maimonides. Unfortunately, although he wrote extensively on the Talmud and is widely quoted by his contemporaries, very few of his works are in existence, or known to us today.


1553 November, JOSEPH HACOHEN ( ITALY)

Completed his Divrei ha-Yamim L'malchei Tzarfat U'malachei Beit Ottoman Hatogar (Chronicles of the Kings of France and the Kings of the House of the Ottoman Turk). This is one of the few Jewish medieval historical works not based on the history of Judaism per se. Hacohen ( see 1496) started with fall of the Roman empire and dealt with the conflict between Christianity and Islam. He also included information on the " new World".


1496 - 1578 JOSEPH HACOHEN (Italy)

Physician and historian. Author of Emek Habacha (Valley of Tears), a history of Jewish martyrdom.. He also wrote ( see 1553) Divrei ha-Yamim… ( Chronicles..), becoming one of the few early Jewish historians to deal with non-Jewish themes.


1849 - 1932 (19 Adar 5693) JOSEPH HAYYIM SONNENFELD (Slovakia-Eretz Israel)

One of the foremost leaders of "the "old Yishuv" in Jerusalem. The term "Old Yishuv" refers to those Jews who lived in Eretz Israel prior to the Zionist movement. He was instrumental in establishing (along with Diskin) schools and orphanages. Sonnenfeld was a dynamic rabbinical leader who preached separation between the Orthodox and non-Orthodox communities. At the same time, he was a strong supporter of the resettlement of Eretz Israel and the use of Hebrew as the official language. His scholarly works include responsa on the Shulchan Aruch as well as on the Talmud.


1035 - 1066 JOSEPH IBN NAGHRELA/ JOSEPH HA-NAGID (Spain)

Jewish leader, diplomat and scholar. He had studied in Kairouan under Rabbi Nissim Gaon and eventually married his daughter. Joseph ibn Naghrela was also a gifted poet composing both religious and secular verse. He was appointed to succeed his father Samuel Hanagid by the Berber king Badis al-Muzaffar (r.1038-1073) of Granada. He was in contact with Jews in many countries and did what he could to help them. Unfortunately , despite his recognized talents he was also arrogant. This played into the hand of his Moslem enemies who were jealous of his position, and eventually led to his downfall


1787 November 12, JOSEPH II (Austria-Hungary)

As part of his "Aufklarung" (Enlightenment)policy, he forced the Jews to adopt family names. This was part of the European movement (including the Age of Reason in France) which encouraged rationality and science over religion.


1859 JOSEPH MICHAELSEN (Denmark)

Devised the International Postal Service Union, to overcome the confusion of the international mail system.


1738 April, JOSEPH OPPENHEIMER WAS HUNG (Germany)

Oppenheimer, the finance minister (see 1698), was arrested after the sudden death of Prince Karl of Wurttemberg. He was offered a pardon if he agreed to be baptized. Although not a practicing Jew, he refused and was placed in a cage in the center of Stuttgart declaring: "I will die as a Jew. I am suffering violence and injustice." He died while shouting "Shema Yisrael."


1688 JOSEPH PENSO DE LA VEGA (Amsterdam, Holland)

Wrote the first Hebrew drama, Asirei Tikva (Prisoners of Hope) in which, in allegorical form, morality triumphed over evil.


490 JOSEPH RABBAH (India)

Arrived with a group of Babylonian Jews to the Malabar coast of India. Rabbah was granted a mini-state in Granganor and freedom of religion. Eventually some Jews settled in Mattachary near Cochin, which became known as "Jews Town".


1803 September 26, Joseph Samuel “the man they couldn’t hang (Australia)

Joseph Samuel had been sent to Australia on a prison ship at the age of 15 for stealing “linen, cloth and two silver spoons.” Two years after his arrival he was accused of killing a constable while committing a robbery. Although he admitted to the robbery, he denied involvement in the murder. Convicted, he was hanged standing on a cart. As it moved the rope broke. It was replaced with a new one but that too broke. Though unconscious he was hanged a third time, though incredibly, this rope snapped as well. The governor general decided to declare a pardon. The day happened to fall out on Yom Kippur. Later another person admitted to the crime.


1877 JOSEPH SELIGMAN (USA)

Was refused admission to the Grand Union Hotel in Saratoga Springs because he was Jewish. Seligman was a renowned philanthropist and helped the Union cause during the Civil War for which in recognition, President Grant had offered him the post of Secretary of the Treasury. Judge Henry Hilton ruled that it was bad for business to allow Jews to enter the resort. Though the Grand Union Hotel was not the first incident in the USA, it received a great amount of publicity.


1698 - 1738 JOSEPH SUSS OPPENHEIMER (Jud Suss) (Germany)

He was responsible for the financial planning of Karl Alexander, the Catholic ruler of Protestant Germany. After Karl's death, he was accused, among other things, of trying to bring back Catholicism. He had lived a life of opulence and had no dealings with his religion or his fellow Jews. Despite this, the community tried to ransom him to no avail. He returned to Jewish beliefs while in prison and died while reciting the Shema. (See 1738)


1727 - 1792 (4 Iyar 5552) JOSEPH TEOMIM (Galicia-Germany)

Rabbi, halachic authority, and teacher. Teomim composed the Pri Migadim (Sweet Fruits), one of the most comprehensive commentaries on the Shulchan Aruch. Originally intended as a super-commentary on the Shach and Taz (on the Shulchan Aruch), he actually solved problems raised by himself. His work, accepted by all Orthodox Jews (Ashkenazic, Sephardic, Hasidic), is based on a systematic analysis of previous commentators (Rishonim) upon whom the commentators based themselves. At the same time he emphasized that his decisions are not to be taken as definitive halacha. He was an authority on grammar as well as the Talmud, and understood rudimentary logic. He also authored a commentary on the Torah entitled Rav Peninim (Many Pearls). In addition he wrote Porat Yosef and Rosh Yosef novellae to various talmudic tractates.


1880 - 1920 JOSEPH TRUMPELDOR (Odessa,Ukraine-Eretz Israel)

First Jewish commissioned officer in the Czarist army. He lost his arm while fighting at Port Arthur in the Russo-Japanese War and became the highest decorated Jewish soldier in Russia. Trumpeldor emigrated to Eretz Israel in 1911 where he met Vladimir Jabotinsky. Together they formed the Zion Mule Corps (the Jewish Legion) in 1917 to fight with the British. He returned to Riga, and with the support of Kerensky, tried to form a Jewish army to fight its way through the Balkans to Eretz Israel. He died while defending Tel Hai, a settlement near the Lebanese border.


1786 - 1866 JOSEPH ZUNDEL SALANT (Lithuania-Eretz Israel)

"Spiritual Father" of the Mussar (ethical) Movement established by Israel Lipkin Salanter (see 1810). Although an exemplary student of Hayim Volozhiner and Akiva Eiger, he refused to accept a rabbinical position, preferring to work for a few hours a day earning his living as a shopkeeper and spending the rest of his day studying. He moved to Jerusalem in 1837 and there again in his humility he refused any official position, opening a vinegar factory instead.


1578 - 1648 (27 Av 5408) JOSHUA HESHEL BEN JOSEPH (Cracow, Poland)

Rabbi and halachist. Unlike many of his contemporaries, he believed that halacha should be determined by facts and that one could arrive at a different ruling than the Shulchan Aruch. His works include the Megeinei Shlomo on the Talmud and the Pnai Yehoshua on the Shulchan Aruch.


1941 June, JOSIP BROZ TITO (1892-1980) (Yugoslavia)

Revolutionary and statesman, he began his revolt against the Germans once they attacked Russia. About 2000 Jews fought together with Marshall Tito including one of his senior lieutenants, Mosa Pijade. The head of his Russian Battalion was a Jew, Pyotr Oransky.


953 JOSIPPON (Josiphon) JOSIPPON (Josiphon) JOSIPPON (Josiphon)

A quasi-historical account that was loosely based on Josephus's Antiquities. The book, composed in Hebrew and of unknown authorship became very popular in the Middle Ages. It mostly deals with the Second Temple period from the Hasmoneans until the destruction of the Temple. Although the author(s) sometimes mix up various historical figures, its importance lies in it being one of the earliest Hebrew literary compositions after the Bible and served to arouse historic interest in the period preceding and following the destruction of the Temple.


1460 JUAN ARIAS DAVILA (Spain)

The Converso son of Diego Arias (treasurer to Henry IV) became Bishop of Segovia. Many new Christians attained high positions in both the government and the Church, which led to resentment and jealously on the part of many "old Christians". This paved the way for the acceptance of the Inquisition. Despite his position, Davila was later persecuted by the Inquisition.


1399 JUAN I (Castile, Spain)

Renewed the anti-Jewish decrees of Alfonso XI forbidding Jews to lend money or collect their depts.


1257 JUDAH ABEN LAVI DE LA CAVALLERIA (Spain)

Was appointed bailiff of Saragossa by James I. His job included collecting taxes and managing state officials. Judah helped the king raise funds for his war against the Moslems, and was eventually appointed bailiff of the province of Valencia. Less than 200 years later partly as a result of the Tortosa disputation (1414) many members of the family were baptized but retained their name. This created a great conflict within the family. By the time of the expulsion there were almost no members who remained Jewish.


1798 - 1878 JUDAH ALKALAI (Sarajevo-Jerusalem)

Rabbi, author, and precursor of modern political Zionism. Alkalai studied in Jerusalem before returning to a post as Rabbi in Zemun(near Belgrade). At age 76 he returned with his wife to live in Eretz Israel. Alkalai wrote many books Darkhei No'am (Pleasant Ways), Shalom Yerushalayim ( Peace of Jerusalem)(1840), Goral la-Adonai (A Lot for the Lord),(1857) and Minhat Yehuda (offering of Judah) (1843) . In them he discussed the idea of Teshuva (return) both spiritually and physically and was greatly influenced by Judah Bibas. He called on Jews to help finance the purchase of land from the Turks, the establishment of agricultural enterprises and the renewal of Hebrew as a spoken language.


1120 - 1190 JUDAH B. SAUL IBN TIBBON (Spain)

Of the family of translators. He translated many Jewish Arabic works into Hebrew, including the Kuzari.


1686 JUDAH BEN ELEAZAR (Riba) (Persia)

Published Hovot Yehudah (Duties of Judah) dealing with faith and philosophy. Ben Eleazar was a physician, philosopher and astronomer, He was evidently forced to “convert” to Islam along with most of the community during the reign of Shah Abbas the second of the Safavid dynasty (1656-1662). Upon the Shah’s death, they were permitted to return to publicly practicing Judaism. He also produced works on astronomy and medicine.


247 JUDAH BEN EZEKIEL (Babylon)

Inaugurated the academy at Pumbedita where he focused study on practical daily laws. Two years prior to his death in 299, he headed both Babylonian academies (Sura and Pumbedita).


1166 - 1217 (13 Adar 4978) JUDAH BEN SAMUEL, THE PIOUS (Ha-Chassid)

A Tosafist, known for his books on mysticism and ethics, including Sefer Hassidim (Book of the Pious). He was considered one of the most important scholars of his time. Ben Samuel was a descendent of the Kalonymos family of Italy. He linked talmudic lore from Babylon and Italy to Germany. Among his students was Eleazar b. Judah of Worms (1165). Though a prolific writer in theology and ethics, few of his works survived.


1867 JUDAH BEN SHALOM ( Yemen)

False Messiah. He claimed that he was the incarnate of Shukr ben Salim Kuhayl I and called himself Shukr ben Salim Kuhayl II. He actually “ remarried” the first Shukr’s wife, yet unlike the first Shukr he established a large court , and amassed a small fortune by demanding tithes from various communities. He was strongly condemned by Jacob Saphir the author of Even Sapir (see 1822)


1811 - 1884 JUDAH BENJAMIN (USA)

"Brains of the Confederacy". He served as a senator in the United States Senate from 1852 until the Civil War. Jefferson Davis appointed him Secretary of State of the Confederacy. After the war, he fled to England where he joined the English Bar.


1780 - 1852 Judah Bibas- Rabbi and “Dreamer of Zion” ( Gibraltar-Hebron)

Born in Gibraltar he later headed a Yeshiva there. He was appointed Rabbi of Corfu in 1832 where he reformed its educational system. Bibas also had a doctorate from Livorno Italy. He became a strong supporter of the “Teshuva” movement which believed that inner repentance had to be coupled with returning to Eretz Israel. During his travel around of Europe (1839-40) promoting his ideas, he met Judah Alkelai (1798-1878) of Sarajevo, who from then on considered himself Bibas’ student. He settled in Hebron in 1852 near the end of his life and is quoted as saying “ Jews must learn science and arms(weapons) so they can wrest the land of Palestine from the Turks”.


1086 - 1145 JUDAH HALEVI (Spain)

Zionist, poet and physician. The author of the Kuzari, a philosophical dialogue between the King of the Khazars and members of the three great monotheistic religions. Among his 800 poems are eighty love poems, three hundred and fifty Diaspora poems and thirty-five songs of Zion. He also practiced medicine in Christian Toledo and used his influence to benefit Jewish refugees.


1700 October 14, JUDAH HASSID (Eretz-Israel)

Arrived in Jerusalem . He had started out with 31 families in Poland and reached a high of 1500 people before setting sail. One third perished along the way. Judah Hassid died 3 days after reaching Jerusalem. The community , met with suspicion by the mostly sephardi community fell into financial hardship. The synagogue and compound under dept to local Arabs was occupied by them and destroyed. It became known as the Ha Hurva or “ The Ruin” synagogue. It took 140 years before it was rebuilt only to be destroyed by the Jordan legion in 1948. It was restored in 2010.rnrn


945 - 1000 JUDAH HAYYUG (ibn Daub) (Spain)

Born in Fez, he was one of Menachem ben Saruk's disciples. He spent most of his life in Cordova. Although most of his writings were in Arabic, they all dealt with Hebrew grammar. He defined the Hebrew triliteral (three letter) root system, providing the foundation of the scientific study of Hebrew grammar.


1147 JUDAH IBN EZRA (Spain)

Was appointed commander of Calatrava, a garrison near the Moslem border by Alfonso VII, in recognition for his help in conquering the fortress.


1831 - 1892 JUDAH LEIB GORDON (Vilna, Lithuania- St. Petersburg, Russia)

Hebrew poet and secularist, whose works included Hakitsah ‘ami (Awake My People!) , Kotso shel yod (The Tip of the Yud [Hebrew letter]) and Tsidkiyahu be-vet ha-pekudot (Zedekiah in Prison). Gordon though supportive of the Zionist cause, preferred emigration to the USA rather than Eretz Israel until those there ‘eliminated religion from their lives’.


1881 October 6, JUDAH LEIB LEVIN

Urged in the Hamgid magazine for Jews to go to America rather than Eretz Israel . “It is a country settled by enlightened people... the holy land where we would be slaves to the sultan." Levin (1844-1925) known as Yehalel, was a well known Hebrew poet and socialist. This debate was of vital importance at this time. Within 10 years almost 200,000 people would leave Russia approximately 75% of them would go to the United States.


C. 1525 - 1609 (18 Elul 5369) JUDAH LOEW BEN BEZALEL (Maharal of Prague) (Bohemia)

Brilliant Talmudist, mathematician and astronomer. He was respected and admired by Emperor Randolph II. A famous legend arose that he made a man of clay and gave him life by putting God's name into him. The story became widely known, giving birth to novels, plays and operatic works. This being, known as the Golem, was said to have served the community until disabled by his master.


1877 - 1948 JUDAH MAGNES (USA-Eretz Israel)

Rabbi and Jewish leader. Though ordained as a Reform rabbi, Magnes was a traditionalist and became close to Solomon Schechter. He was instrumental in helping establish the American Jewish Committee together with his brother-in-law Louis Marshall. Magnes was a strong Zionist who believed in Jewish defense while accepting the unique role of Zionism as proposed by Ahad Ha'am. In 1922 he immigrated to Eretz Israel and helped establish the Hebrew University where he served as chancellor from 1925-35 and first president (1935-48) until his death.


138 - C. 220 (15 Kislev 3980) JUDAH THE PRINCE (Judah HaNasi) (Eretz Israel)

Known simply as Rabbi. He was the first acknowledged Patriarch (Nasi) responsible for both the Sanhedrin and for acting as the political head of the community. For the most part, Patriarchs like Judah the Prince were chosen from descendents of Hillel. The last Hillelite Patriarch was Gamliel VI (b.370- d.425). Judah HaNasi's greatest contribution was collecting and codifying the Mishna.


1775 - 1854 JUDAH TOURO (USA)

Merchant-philanthropist. Judah Touro moved to New Orleans at the age of 22 and became a successful trader. He enlisted in the War of 1812 under Andrew Jackson and was wounded in the defense of New Orleans. Touro never married but left large funds (estimated $500,000) for various philanthropic purposes. Some of them included completing the Bunker Hill monument, enclosing the Jewish Cemetery in Newport, Rhode Island, and numerous almshouses and Jewish congregations in New Orleans and other cities. His funds joined with Montefiore's to help build the first housing complex outside the walls of the old city of Jerusalem, Mishkenot Shananim.


1782 JUDITH ROSANES (Zolkiev)

Moved to Lemberg and opened a printing shop. Before she died in 1805 she had printed at least 50 books. She was one of the most successful women pioneers in the Hebrew printing business. She employed 24 people.


1778 JUEDISCHE FREISCHULE "Jewish Free School" (Germany)

Was established by Isaac Daniel Itzig and his brother in law, David Friedlander(1750-1834). The school, which omitted Talmud and limited Hebrew studies, concentrated on math, German, French, and commercial courses. After 1806, non-Jewish students were accepted, and they soon became one-third of the student body. (Since Juedische Freischule was the the first Haskalah school established, many use this date to mark the beginning of the Haskalah (Enlightenment) Movement, whose initial aim was to "modernize" Judaism by opening it to European culture and specifically to a philosophy of rationality which was spreading throughout Europe. Jews were encouraged to adopt the manners, dress, and language of their host country. In the beginning there were Orthodox leaders who supported some of the educational aims of the movement. When it became apparent that the movement was leading to an anti-halachic and assimilationist direction, the Orthodox establishment banned the movement, and established its own educational response to it through Samson Rafael Hirsch and others.


361 - 363 JULIAN THE APOSTATE (Roman Empire)

The only non-Christian emperor since Constantine, he preferred Judaism to Christianity, considering Judaism closer to his conception of the Greco-Roman viewpoint. He planned to rebuild the Temple and even began construction, but he was killed on the battlefield. His plans died with him.In his war with Mesopotamia he encouraged the Jews to support him. The vast majority despite his promises of rebuilding a third temple continued to support Persia and were allowed to bear arms in self defense.


1828 - 1848 JULIUS FERDINAND COHN (Germany)

Botanist and father of bacteriology. He proved the existence of chlorophyll and was the first to define the nature of bacteria. Cohn invented a method of filtering water which was instrumental in halting the cholera epidemic of 1852. In Breslau he was denied a doctorate because he refused to convert, but eventually he received one in Berlin.


1857 - 1893 JULIUS POPPER (Romania-Argentina)

Explorer. Popper succeeded in finding gold on the Island of Tierra del Fuego and established himself there as a representative of a mining company. To protect himself against poachers he brought in armed men. After a number of "battles" he became the "Sovereign" of the Island, printing money and even stamps. As the mines began to produce less money he returned to Argentina where he lived as a popular literary figure. He died under uncertain circumstances.


C. 100 - C. 165 JUSTIN MARTYR

Early Christian philosopher, and author of Dialogue with Tryphon, as well as his Apologies. Justin considered Judaism an enemy of Christianity. He professed that the Jews bear the responsibility for the death of Jesus, since they "insulted, shamed and murdered him on the cross." This he believed was part of by a conspiracy by the Jews and Herod , who in turn was guided in his actions by "Satan himself". He also proposed that Jews persecute and kill Christians as soon as they have the power to do so.


1893 JUSTINAS PRANAITIS (St. Petersburg, Russia)

"Proved" that Jews used the blood of Christian children in the baking of matzos. In 1911 he was the "expert" witness in the Beilis trial.


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