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1944 January 16, HENRY MORGENTHAU JR. (1891-1967)

Secretary of the Treasury, presented a personal report to President Roosevelt accusing the State Department of actively preventing the rescue of European Jewry. The State Department's antagonism toward any help for European Jewry stemmed from both incompetence and a fear of "what to do with the Jews if they do get out". The Department was totally against a more liberal attitude toward its own anti-immigration policy and fully supported the British position of not allowing more Jews into Eretz Israel.


Was appointed chairman of the Agricultural Administration Committee by Roosevelt. He later served as Secretary of the Treasury.


Was elected New York's first Jewish governor. From that time on, Jews formed a pact with the Democratic Party.

1922 HAYIM HELLER (1878-1960, 14 Nisan 5760) (Germany)

Established a new type of yeshiva in Berlin which combined traditional studies with Biblical and talmudic research (Bet ha-Midrash ha-Elyon). Among his students were Samuel Bialobocki and J. B. Soloveitchik.

1944 November 20, HAVIVA REIK (1914-1944) (Slovakia)

was executed by the Nazis. Reik along with Rafael Reiss, Zvi Ben-Yaakov, and Haim Hermesh volunteered to parachute into Slovakia to help the uprising against the Nazis. In September 1944 despite British refusal to send her on the mission she succeeded in reaching her fellow paratroopers in Banska Bystresis. When it fell they moved into the mountains and fought together with other Jewish partisans until she was captured by the Ukrainian SS troops in early November. In 1952 she was reburied on Mt. Herzl in Jerusalem.

1946 February 23, HAGANAH ATTACKED (Eretz Israel)

The British police forces at Kfar Vitkin, Shfar'am and Sarona (now the Kirya in Tel Aviv).

1948 May 12, HAGANAH HEADQUARTERS (Tel Aviv, Eretz Israel)

Arab notables from Jaffa signed a surrender agreement.

1886 February 12, HA-YOM (Russia)

The first Hebrew daily newspaper was published in St. Petersburg, Russia

1939 September 6, HAGANAH (Eretz Israel)

Set up its first central command. Its first head was Yaakov Dori (Dostrovsky).

1920 June 15, HAGANAH (Eretz Israel)

Self-Defense Force was formed during a meeting of the Ahdut Avodah party. It was designed to take the place of the Ha-Shomer Ha-Tzair movement, and was dedicated to havlagah, or self-defense. The original idea had been proposed by Israel Shochat eight years earlier. With the onset of the British Mandate the Zionist leaders had thought there would not be a need for a self-defense organization. The Arab attacks earlier that year proved them wrong. Eliyahu Golomb was its first commander.

1944 November 19, HAGANAH (Eretz Israel)

In reaction to world condemnation of Lord Moyne's assassination, the Haganah decided to actively help the British in tracking down the Irgun. In addition, on Ben Gurion's, orders, all members of the undergrounds and their supporters were thrown out of work and even schools. Two executives of the Jewish Agency, Rabbi Yehuda Fishman-Maimon and Yitzhak Greenboim objected, and Greenboim even resigned in protest. Ironically, Lehi supporters - who ordered the assassination - were not hunted. According to Lehi sources, Natan Yellin Mor (one of Lehi's leaders) had warned Golomb, that unlike the Irgun (who decided not to take revenge and risk a civil war), they would pay a heavy price if any of Lehi's supporters were touched.


Ha'aretz newspaper reported that Yaakov Tavin, head of the Irgun's intelligence service, had been arrested and held for six months in Kibbutz Ein Harod. During that time he was interrogated and even tortured. This and other incidents led to the condemnation of the Haganah policies by the Chief Rabbinate and civil organizations. The protests, together with the disillusion of the Zionist leadership with British promises, led to the eventual collapse of "the Season". According to both sides, the Season did not succeed in dismantling of the Irgun.

1772 - 1812 HAKHMEI SHKLOV “Sages of Shklov” (Belarus)

Settled by students of the Vilna Gaon (see 1720) it became a major center for Talmudic and Halachic studies. The group of scholars were led by Binyamin Rivlin (1728-1810),and know as the Hakhmei ( Chachmei) Shklov . They were a powerful force in the anti-Hassidic movement. His son Hillel (1758-1838) eventually left with many of the Gaon’s disciples for Eretz Israel.

1935 January 11, HAKIBBUTZ HADATI (Eretz Israel)

The religious kibbutz movement was founded. This kibbutz movement was affiliated with the HaPoel HaMizrachi movement and the religious Zionist Labor Organization. Its idea was to combine religious life and labor in communal agricultural settlements, the first being Tirat Tzvi.

1860 HAMEILITZ (Russia)

Was published by Alexander Zederbaum. It became the first Hebrew weekly published in Russia.

1909 April 4, HASHOMER (Eretz Israel)

The Association of Jewish watchmen was founded in order to protect Jewish settlements. Many of its members were recent arrivals from Russia who had organized self-defense organizations in Russia during the pogroms five years earlier. Its founders included Itzhak ben Zvi, Israel Giladi, Israel Shochat and Alexander Zeid. The Shomerim were excellent horsemen. spoke Arabic and wore a combination of Arab and Circassian garb. Within a few years they took over the defense of all Jewish villages. HaShomer was active until 1920 when it was absorbed into the Haganah.

1871 June 11, HATZOFE B'ERETZ CHADASHA (The Observer in the New Land) (USA)

Edited by Henry Berenstein, it became the first Hebrew periodical to be published in the USA.

1904 August, HEHALUTZ (HeChalutz) (Pioneer movement)

A loosely formed movement that received its initial push from Menahem Ussishkin who called on Jewish youth to come settle in Eretz Israel. The movement developed at different times in different countries and included various Zionist youth movements. Joseph Trumpeldor joined the Russian movement in 1918. A year later "The 105" group (named for the 105 members) arrived from Poland. By the beginning of World War II they had a combined membership of around 100,000 people.

1920 December 12, HISTADRUT HAOVDIM (General Labor Federation) (Eretz Israel)

Was founded in Eretz Israel. Its founder, Berl Katznelson, was a disciple of Borochov. He combined various labor groups to form a federation. In reality the federation became one major union which was divided into trade sections. The Histadrut had its own workers' bank, Bank Hapoalim, as well as an Agricultural Audit Union, and a wholesale purchasing organization, Hamashbir Hamerkazi. Tnuva was its agricultural marketing cooperative, Hamashbir Hamerkazi, its wholesale consumer cooperative and department store, and Solel Boneh its contracting organization. It even had its own insurance company, Hassneh, and sick fund. The Histadrut was forced to make major reforms and cutbacks in the 1990's because of the changed economic climate and economy of the state of Israel.

1884 November 6 - 8, HOVEVEI ZION (HIBBAT ZION)(Lovers of Zion) (Germany)

Was founded in Kattowitz, Germany (which is now known as Katowice, Poland). Thirty-six delegates met in the first Pre-Herzl Zionist Conference. Rabbi Mohilever was elected president and Leon Pinsker was elected chairman. Under their guidance they tried to secure financial help (from Baron Edmond de Rothschild and others) for the new Jewish settlements to organize educational courses as well as counsel them about religious guidelines. They are considered the forerunner and foundation of the modern Zionist movement. This movement was mostly active in Russia and Romania, but it had branches throughout Europe and even some in the USA. Due in part to their precarious position within Eastern Europe, the Hovevei Zion did not deal with Zionism as a political movement.

1940 April 27, H. F. DOWNIE (England)

The British Head of the Middle East Department of the Colonial Office stated that "the Jews are enemies just as the Germans are, but in a more insidious way", and that "our two sets of enemies [Nazis and Jews] are linked together by secret and evil bonds." A year later (March 15, 1941), he wrote " one regret[s] that the Jews are not on the other side in this war."

1783 April 13, HA-ME'ASSEF ( "THE COLLECTOR")

A Hebrew periodical, was launched by Isaac Abraham Euchel (1758-1804) and Mendel Bresslau ( d. 1829). This was the first journal of the Haskalah Movement, and it ran until 1811. Though ostensibly haskalah oriented, they also published some articles from an orthodox standpoint. Moses Mendelssohn, Naphtali Wessely, David Friedrichsfeld, and Aaron Halle-Wolfssohn were among the contributors. Many of them became to be known as " The Me'assefim".rn

1913 May 22, HA-SHOMER HA-ZA’IR (Galicia)

Socialist –Zionist movement is founded . During the Third Aliyah, (1919–23) some 600 members of Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir settled in Erez Israel. A kibbutz movement was established in 1927 for its members known as Kibbutz Arzi Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir. Today they are affiliated with the leftist Mapam movement which is part of the Meretz Party.

1918 October 8, HABIMAH THEATER (Russia-Eretz Israel)

Was founded by Nahum Zemach. Based on the methods of the famous Russian theater director Konstantin Stanislavski, the Habimah Theater opened in Moscow. The production of Anski's The Dybbuk, with the help of actor Menahem Gnessin and the actress Hannah Rovina, brought it fame. One of the staunchest friends of the theater group was Maxim Gorky. In 1931 the company moved to Eretz Israel, where they eventually became the National Theater.

1931 HABIMAH THEATER (Russia/USSR-Eretz Israel)

Moved to Eretz Israel where Habimah eventually became the National Theater. The theater played an important role in the developing of Hebrew as a National language.

1912 March 7, HADASSAH (New York, USA)

The Women's Zionist Organization of America was founded by Henrietta Szold. The name Hadassah is another name for Esther and was chosen since the meeting was held close to the Purim holiday. Their main goals included promoting Zionist ideals in the United States and improving health conditions in Eretz Israel.

1948 April 13, HADASSAH CONVOY TERROR ATTACK (Eretz Israel)

Arabs murdered seventy-seven people, mostly doctors and nurses on their way to Hadassah Hospital on Mount Scopus in Jerusalem. British troops stationed close by refused to "interfere".

939 - 1038 HAI BEN SHERIRA GAON (Babylon)

Descendant of King David and last of the influential Geonim. Over one-third of the existing responsa (almost one thousand) in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic are from Hai Gaon. He ruled that in the case of conflict, the Babylonian Talmud took precedence over the Jerusalem Talmud.

1768 June 18, HAIDAMAK MASSACRES (Ukraine)

Reached Uman. The peasant serfs and Cossacks rioted much in the same vein as Chemielnicki one hundred and twenty years earlier. At Uman, the Poles and Jews defended the city together under the Polish commander, Ivan Gonta. The next day, convinced by Zheleznyak the Polish revolutionary that only the Jews would be attacked, Gonta allowed the fortified city to be entered without a fight. Approximately 8000 Jews were killed, many of them trying to defend themselves near the synagogue. As soon as the Jews were all massacred, the Haidamaks (the paramilitary bands) began to kill the Poles. Although the Haidamacks began in the 1730's, the main rioting was during the years 1734, 1750 and 1768. It is estimated that during these years 20,000 Jews were killed. The Haidamaks became part of the Ukrainian national movement and are celebrated in folklore and literature.

1936 December 23, HAIFA

Of the 750 Arab employees at the ports, only 50 were native Arabs the remainder included 200 Egyptians and 500 Hauranis from Syria.

1100 July 25, HAIFA (Eretz Israel)

Jewish residents joined with the Fatimids of Egypt in defending the city. Tancred, who unsuccessfully attacked Haifa, was reprimanded for his lack of success and told that he made "a mockery of the God of the Christians." Once the city fell, the remaining Jews were massacred by the crusading forces.

1947 December 29, HAIFA (Eretz Israel)

Arabs attacked Jewish workers at the oil refinery in Haifa, 39 were killed. Two days later, the Haganah attacked the village of Balad a Sheich in a retaliatory raid.

1948 April 23, HAIFA CAPTURED (Eretz Israel)

By the Haganah. Although loudspeakers called on the Arabs to stay, they fled in mass, urged to do so by leaders of the Arab High Command. Many of these leaders believed that the upcoming war would be helped by masses of Arab refugees whose presence would encourage them to join in the attack. The refugees were promised that they would only be away for a short time and would be able to return when the attacking armies "drive the Jews into the sea". They were also promised compensation for their property.

1947 March 31, HAIFA OIL REFINERY (Eretz Israel)

Was severely damaged by Lehi fighters.


This marked the greatest extent of Napoleon's conquest of Eretz Israel. The next day the French reached Acre. It was sucessfully defended by both British warships and local towns people, including the Jewish inhabitants. By June, Napoleon gave up and returned to Egypt.

1819 August 31, HAIM FARHI (Acre, Eretz Israel)

Was murdered on the command of Abdullah Pasha. Farhi was the head of an important banking family, which had been influential in helping Abdullah come to power. Farhi had previously narrowly escaped death at the hands of Abdullah's predecessor, Ahmad al-Jazzar Pasha. During Napoleon's siege of Acre in 1799, Farhi refused Napoleon's offer of a promised Jewish independence and defended the city. Farhi was warned that his former backer had a change of heart but he refused to flee, fearing a backlash against the Jews in the Galilee. He was noted for his generous philanthropy, especially in Acre and Damascus.


Arrived in Cairo. After his arrest, the year before, the French hoping for enhancement of their status in the Arab world gave him "special detention conditions" including freedom of movement and the ability to buy a car. The British had been demanding his extradition as a war criminal but France refused, declaring him a political prisoner. With pressure increasing, the French suspended their surveillance allowing him to board a regular flight to Cairo. The Strategic Services Unit claims that it was actually the British who wanted him released. There he was welcomed by Hassan al-Banna, the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, who commented, "Germany and Hitler are gone, but Amin Al-Husseini will continue the struggle.”


Arrived in Bosnia from Berlin at the request of Himmler to help recruit Moslems for the Waffen SS “Hanjar" (Handschar) division the largest of the Muslim SS divisions. The unit volunteered to hunt down Bosnian Jews. By the end of the war 12,000 of Bosnia's 14,000 had been murdered.

1941 November 28, HAJ AMIN al-HUSSEINI, MUFTI OF JERUSALEM (Berlin)

Met with Hitler and called him the "Protector of Islam." Hitler promised the Mufti that, after the Wehrmacht reached the southern gates of the Caucasus, “Germany’s objective would then be solely the destruction of the Jewish element residing in the Arab sphere.” Husseni later commented that he praised the Germans " because they “know how to get rid of the Jews".


Was established as a port by the English. Within a year, it had a number of Jewish families and its own cemetery.

1919 April, - June, HALLER'S BLUE ARMY (Poland)

Conquered eastern Galicia, attacking Jewish towns and individuals along the way. The army had been organized the last year of the war and was under the leadership of General Jozef Haller, with the backing of the Polish nationalist anti-Semite, Roman Dmowski.

1143 HAM (France)

150 Jews were murdered. In Carenton the Jews defended themselves, but in the end were wiped out too.

1612 November 7, HAMBURG (Germany)

The Senate decided to officially allow Jews to live in the city on the condition that there be no public worship. Portuguese Jews had been living there for over 40 years under the guise of officially being Catholic.

1818 October 18, HAMBURG (Germany)

Dedication of the Reform Temple, the first temple established specifically for that purpose. A year later, the temple composed a new prayer book, deleting any mention of the Messiah and the return to the Holy Land.

990 - 1053 HANANEL BEN HUSHIEL (Tunisia)

One of the last Geonim. He was actually born in Kairouan and remained there most of his life. He wrote the first complete commentary on the Talmud which is today embedded in the actual Talmud page. Hananel was also one of the first to rationalize the miracles of Agadah (Biblical legends). This is the part of the Oral Law which deals with stories, chronicles and sayings rather than laws. His writings and responsa served as a bridge between the Babylonian academies and North African Jewry.

1911 - 1986 HANK GREENBERG (USA)

Baseball player and all star outfielder for the Detroit tigers from 1933-1947. Greenberg was picked Most Valuable Player twice, and was the first Jew elected to the baseball Hall of Fame(1956). In 1938 he scored only two less homeruns (58) than Babe Ruth. Greenberg is considered one of baseballs greatest right hand hitters.

1812 HANNAH ADAMS (1755-1831) (USA)

Wrote History of the Jews from the Destruction of Jerusalem to the Present Time. Adams, who was not Jewish, also included information on American Jewry and is considered one of the first woman professional writers in America.

1805 - 1888 HANNAH RACHEL VERBERMACHER aka Maiden of Ludomir (Volhynia "Ukraine").

Female Hassidic leader. Her father, Monesh, a wealthy merchant , was a follower of Rabbi Mordechai Twersky, (1770-1837)(the "Maggid of Chernobyl"). She refused to marry and began keeping commandments not incumbent on women, including praying with a tallit and phylacteries . Hannah became known as a scholar and holy person. She established her own Shtibel (the Gornshtibel) acting much in the same way as any Hassidic Rebbe. The traditional Hassidic community took exception and through Rabbi Twersky pressured her to cease her actions and marry. The marriage was very short lived, and Hannah immigrated to Jerusalem. There she again established a following , including Moslem women, and gave popular Shabbat lectures. Refusing to accept donations from abroad, she maintained her independence all her life.

1858 - 1942 HANNAH SOLOMON (USA)

Civic leader and founder of the National Council of Jewish Women (1893) Solomon was elected as the Council's first president and served until 1905. Together with and Susan B. Anthony she represented the Council of Women of the United States at a convention of the International Council of Women in Berlin in 1904. In an effort to help new immigrants she organized the Bureau of Personal Service in Chicago.

1921 - 1944 November 7, HANNAH SZENES (Senesh) (Eretz Israel-Hungary)

Poet and freedom fighter. Born in Hungary, she immigrated to Eretz Israel in 1939 and joined kibbutz Sedot Yam. Her poem Halikha LeKesariya ("A Walk to Caesarea") is famous today as Eli Eli ( My God My God). In 1942 a call went out for volunteers for a special mission against Germany. She joined 32 other young Jews who were trained by the British to infiltrate behind enemy lines. While in Yugoslavia she wrote her famous poem wrote the poem Ashrei ha-Gafrur ("Blessed is the Match"). She was captured in June 1944 and executed November 7, 1944 . Six other parachutists lost their lives during their missions. Her diary and many of her poems were published after her tragic death. She was reburied in 1950 on Mt. Herzl in Jerusalem.

1893 - 1950 HAROLD JOSEPH LASKI (England)

Political scientist and socialist leader in England. A prolific writer and lecturer, his works include: Grammar of Politics, Democracy in Crisis and The American Democracy. He favored assimilation until World War II, when he became an outspoken Zionist.

1924 HAROLD MAURICE ABRAHAMS (1899-1978), (Britain)

Won the gold medal for 100 meters in the Paris Olympics and a silver medal in the relay. Although his active career was cut short by a leg injury, he continued to be active in sports. The story of Abrahams and Eric Liddell, both members of the British team, later became the basis of the 1981 film "Chariots of Fire."

1945 August 24, HARRISON MISSION (USA)

Earl Harrison, the Dean of Law at the University of Pennsylvania and a former U.S. commissioner on immigration, had been sent as a personal envoy of President Harry S. Truman to inquire into the conditions of the Displace Persons (DP's), especially the Jews, and issued his report. "Jews are kept behind barbed wire…in camps, including concentration camps…with no opportunity…to communicate to the outside world. We appear to be treating the Jews as the Nazi's…except that we don't exterminate them." He concluded that "the U.S. should convince the British to open Palestine to refugees."

1883 HARTUV (Artuf) ( Eretz- Israel)

Land near the today’s town of Beit Shemesh, was purchased to set up an agricultural settlement by the Jewish Refugees fund”. Headed by Lord Aberdeen its purpose was to provide Russian refugees with work and to eventually convert them - it lasted 3 years. Twelve years later it was bought and settled by Jews from Bulgaria. rnrn

807 HARUN AL RASHID (Persia)

Forced Jews to wear a yellow badge and Christians to wear a blue badge (see 796).

786 - 809 HARUN EL RASHID (Persia)

An Abbasid Caliph. His rule marked the zenith of Abbasid power. Jews and Christians did not fare well under his rule.

1720 HARVARD COLLEGE (North American Colonies)

Confered on Judah Monis a degree of Masters of the Arts for his book on Hebrew grammar, making him the first Jew in America to receive a degree from any college. Two years later he converted to Christianity after being offered the position of Instructor of Hebrew at the college.

1340 - 1410 HASDAI BEN JUDAH CRESCAS (Spain)

Rabbi, rationalist philosopher, poet, and statesman. Crescas was a student of Nissim Ben Reuben (RaN) Gerondi (c. 1310–1376) . His, Or Adonai (Light of the Lord) was part of a major work he wanted to write ( Ner Elohim) as a reaction to Maimonides, but he only succeeded in writing the first part. ‎He also wrote Bittul Ikkarei ha-Notzerim (Refutation of the Christian Principles) as part of his efforts to fight against Christian pressure to convert. In 1390 he was appointed as the judge of all the Jews of the Kingdom of Aragon. During the anti-Jewish riots of 1391 he tried his best to protect the Jewish community, unfortunately his only son was murdered in Barcelona during the riots.

912 - 970 HASDAI IBN SHAPRUT (Spain)

Physician to Abd Al(ar)-Rahman III and Al Hakam II, Umayyad rulers in Cordova. Hasdai spoke numerous language including Latin, Arabic and the Spanish of the time and also served Abd al Rahman as a diplomat and interpreter. He co -translated Dioscorides' work on botany, from the Greek. In 957 he cured the King of León, Sancho el Craso (Sancho the Fat), of obesity which won him the further appreciation of the Caliph. He used his position to help and protect his fellow Jews, including those in Byzantium. Hasdai made contact with Joseph, King of the Khazars. Together with Moses ben Hanoch, he founded the Talmudic school in Cordova. As the role and importance of Sura academy grew weaker, Hasdai purchased part of the library and had it transferred to Córdoba. The Cordova school's influence was felt in Spain for 350 years.


Physician, and adviser to Abd al-Rahman III, wrote his famous letter to Joseph, king of the Khazars, Hasdai described the Umayyad kingdom in Spain and asked questions about the kingdom of the Khazars. Joseph's replied detailing Khazar history, and its current status.


Ethical and mystical movement, thrived in Germany centering mainly around the Kalonymus family; Rabbi Samuel ben Kalonymus he-Hasid (the Pious), his son Rabbi Judah he-Hasid, and the latter's student, Rabbi Eleazar ben Judah of Worms. The movement was influenced by the difficult times which led to mystical hints in its theology and its focus on the importance of martyrdom - dying Al Kiddush Hashem. The movement placed a great emphasis on strict attention to the details of both major and minor religious regulations.

1947 June, HASSAN AL-BANNA (Egypt)

Founder of the Moslem brotherhood met with the papal legate Monsignor Hughes who promised to represent the Arab case to the Pope.

1934 August 12, HAURAN, SYRIA

Twefik be el Hauani the local governor, estimated that due to the long drought, between 25,30,000- Syrians including entire villages, immigrated mostly to the western Galilee and Central region. The British officially only recorded 1784 as entering. Almost none were expelled for illegal immigration. According to the British, the estimated number of illegal immigrants to Madatory Palestine in 1934, both Arab and non-Arab, at 3,000.

1580 - 1651 HAVA BACHRAH (Bacarach) (Prague)

The granddaughter of R. Judah Loew ben Bezalel (the Maharal) of Prague (1525–1609), she was renowned for her knowledge and teaching, especially the Bible with its commentaries and Apocrypha . Her husband Samuel the Rabbi of Worms, was killed during a pogrom in 1615 and she never remarried. Hava's grandson Yair Hayyim Bacharach named his responsa (published in 1699) Havot Yair in acknowledgment of her scholarship .

1914 - 1944 November 20, HAVIVA REIK (Slovakia-Eretz Israel)

One of the four volunteers who parachuted into Slovakia to help the uprising against the Nazis. Reik was born in a Slovakia and made aliyah in 1939 where she joing kibbutz Ma'anit. She volunteered for the Palmach and when it was formed the parachutist unit. Despite British refusal to send her on the mission she succeeded in reaching Banska Bystresis in September 1944 where she helped Jewish refugees. When it fell, they moved into the mountains with other Jewish partisans. She was captured and later executed by the Nazis on November 20, 1944. Kibbutz Lahavot Haviva and the Givat Haviva venter are dedicated to her memory.

1921 August 10, HAYCRAFT REPORT

Was completed by Chief Justice for Palestine Thomas Haycraft to determine the causes of the Arab riots earlier in the year. Although it criticized Arab violence and the role of Arab police in instigation the riots, it stressed that the "fundamental cause" was the pro-Zionist policies of the British government and Jewish immigration. It was presented and approved by the British parliament in October. The report served Herbert Samuel as a pretext for a more pro-Arab policy and a curbing of Jewish immigration.

1933 June 22, HAYIM ARLOSOROFF (Eretz Israel)

A Zionist leader within the Zionist labor party, he was murdered on a beach outside Tel Aviv. The Labor leaders tried to pin the blame on Abba Ahimeir of the Revisionist Party and specifically on Abraham Stavsky and Zvi Rosenblatt. At the trial they were all acquitted but the government refused to reveal the details of what really happened. Ironically, Stavsky was killed aboard the Altalena, an Irgun ship fired upon by the Haganah while trying to bring arms into the country during the Arab-Israel cease-fire of June 1948.

1724 - 1806 (11 Adar 5566) HAYIM JOSEPH DAVID AZULAI (the Chidah)

Halachist, kabbalist, emissary, and bibliographer. Azulai traveled as an emissary of the Jewish community in Eretz Israel, especially Hebron. He visited Italy, Germany, Holland, France and England. While on his travels, he visited numerous libraries, noting their contents. His is renowned for his halachic commentary on the Shulchan Aruch (Berkei Yosef) and Machzik Beracha. In addition, he kept notes on all his travels, including ideas that came to him as well as people he met. In a controversial decision, he advocated women studying the Mishnah - if they were self motivated (Tuv Ayin, no. 4) . Azulai also collected Jewish folk stories which he published in his Zichron Maasiyyot V'Nissim.

1543 - 1620 (1 Iyar 5380) HAYIM VITAL (Damascus, Syria - Safed, Eretz Israel)rn

A pupil of the Ari, he was respected both in and out of Eretz Israel. Vital was the author of many Kabbalistic, talmudic and Biblical works including Etz Chaim (Tree of Life) on Lurian Kabbalah, and Lekutai Torah (Gleanings of Torah). He had sole possession of the Ari's writings, and most of our knowledge of the Ari's life. Most of our knowledge of the Ari's life and teachings are from Vital.

1728 May 13, HAYYIM AND JOSHUA REIZES (Lvov, Lithuania)

The head of the Rabbinical court and head of the yeshiva were arrested when a Jesuit priest, Zoltowskiki, discovered that Jan Filipowicz, a convert, had reconverted to Judaism and accused them of complicity. Jan Filipowicz was soon tortured and killed. Joshua was condemned to death, but committed suicide by cutting his own throat. For three days his brother Hayyim refused to convert to Christianity. His tongue was then torn out, his body quartered and he was finally burned. Their property was then confiscated.

1696 - 1743 HAYYIM BEN ATTAR ( Morocco-Eretz Israel)

Rabbi, Kabbalist and scholar. He authored the well known commentary on the Pentateuch, Or Hahayyim (The Light of Life), as well as Pri Toar (Beautiful Fruit) on the Shulchan Aruch, and Ḥefetz Hashem (God's Desire), on parts of the Talmud. He left Morocco in 1733, but only arrived in Eretz Israel in 1742, being delayed by the Jewish communities in Livorno ( where a yeshiva was set up in his honor) ,Venice and Damascus. He died soon after his arrival.

1749 - 1821 (14 Sivan 5581) HAYYIM BEN ISAAC VOLOZHINER (Poland-Lithuania)

Rabbi and Jewish educator. As a student of both the Gaon of Vilna and Rabbi Aryeh Gunzberg, he brought all he had learned from them when establishing his renowned Volozhin Yeshiva (see 1802). Although a student of the Gaon of Vilna and a staunch Mitnagid, he refused to sign any ban against the Hasidim. He was a firm believer of Torah study for the sake of Torah study, believing it to be the best way to be in touch with God.

1603 - 1673 September, (17 Elul 5433) HAYYIM BEN ISRAEL BENVENISTE ( Turkey)

Rabbi and Halachic Scholar. He studied under Joseph Trani and was one of his foremost pupils. For a short time, he supported Shabbetai Zevi, but he soon took the opposite point of view becoming a strong opponent. Benveniste is best known for his Shiyurei Kenesset ha-Gedolah and Knesset ha-Gedolah in which he explains previous Halachik decisions of the Arba'ah Turim and Shulchan Arukh, as well as later commentaries. Both of his works are still in use today.

1660 - 1744 HAYYIM BEN JACOB ABULAFIA ( Eretz-Israel)

Scholar and community leader. He wrote number book among them Mikrae Kodesh on the Talmud and bible Yosef Lekach on the Pentateuch and Shevut Yaakov on the Ein Yaakov by ibn Habib. In 1742 he asked and agreed to help reestablish the Jewish community in Tiberias (see1742 and 1743). He built a synagogue , bathhouse , oil press and helped raise funds for housing.

1919 February 8, HAYYIM ELAZAR SHAPIRO/ Munckazer Rebbe (Hungary)

Wrote a public letter exhorting rabbis against Agudat Israel and especially the Zionist movement even if "all the nations agree, God forbid, she (Jews) will not go there. He continued his uncompromising stance all of his life. A book of his writings Tikun Olam "Improving the World", was composed in 1936 in the same vein. Shapiro (1868-1937 was also against modern medicine and science, reproving anyone who would study architecture or engineering.

C. 1760 - 1820 HAYYIM FARHI ( Syria- Eretz Israel)

AKA El Mu'Allim "The teacher", for his considerable learning. He was asked to serve Ahmad Pasha al-Jazzar the governor of Sidon (r.1776-1804) as his chief advisor. Farhi was the defacto ruler of Acre, and did his best to interceded for fellow Jews when possible. He defended Acre against Napoleon in 1799. He lost his eye, part of his nose, and ear during one of Al Jazzars infamous rages. Farhi was the mentor to Abdullah Pasha who assassinated him.. His body was tossed into the sea and all his assets confiscated by Abdulla (see 1821).

1878 - 1960 (14 Nissan 5720) HAYYIM HELLER (Poland-Germany-USA)

Scholar and Rabbinical leader. He established a new type of yeshiva in Berlin which combined traditional studies with Biblical and talmudic research (Bet ha-Midrash ha-Elyon) see 1922. Heller combined vast talmudic knowledge with modern methods of textual research. In 1929 he joined the faculty of the Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary.

1863 - 1940 (5 Av 5700) HAYYIM OZER GRODZENSKI (Poland)

Appointed Rabbi in Vilna at the age of twenty-four. He spent much of his time trying to alleviate the plight of the poor, the yeshivot, and the constant refugees. An early leader of the Agudas Yisroel Movement, he was embroiled in many controversies over liberalism and the Zionist movement, and always maintained a strictly conservative view. His Responsa Achiezer was published in three volumes and established him as a leading Torah authority.

1852 - 1937 Hayyim Pereira Mendes ( England -USA)

The descendant of a long list of rabbinical leaders he was called to New York's Congregation Shearith Israel to fill a position as preacher. He served there for 60 years, Mendes was active in setting up the Jewish theological seminary) 1866), the Union of Orthodox Congregations (1897), the Young woman's Hebrew Organization (YWHA) (1902). He founded the Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids (1884), and the Horeb Home and School for Jewish Deaf-Mutes (1906). Mendes was also an ardent Zionist and served as vice-president of the American Federation of Zionists.

1740 - 1785 HAYYIM SALOMON (Poland-America)

As a member of the Sons of Liberty, he was arrested and condemned to die. He escaped and joined the American Revolution as a patriot and financier. Salomon later died penniless and friendless.

1810 - 1904 HAYYIM SELAG SLONINSKI (Bialystok, Poland)

Known as "Hazas". Orthodox mathematician and science writer. His works included Kochva d'Shavit on astronomy, Toldot ha-Shamayim on the calendar and Yesodai Hochmat Hashiur (Founding of the Science of Calculation). He founded Ha'Zefira, a Hebrew newspaper on science. His writings were accepted even by Orthodox Jews.

1556 - 1647 HAYYIM SHABBETAI (Maharhash) (Salonika)

Halachik authority, and chief rabbi of Salonika. His Sefer Torat Hayyim (The Book of Law and Life or The Book of the living Law) is a responsa in three volumes. One of his responsa relates to the question of when Jews in the rain forests of the New World (Brazil) should pray for rain, due of the reversal of seasons south of the equator. This made it the first recorded American related responsa. Sefer Torat Hayyim was reprinted in Jerusalem in 1970.

1853 - 1918 (21 Av 5678) HAYYIM SOLOVEICHIK (Rav Chayim Brisker) (Russia)

Rabbi of Brest-Litvosk. He served as head of the Volozhin Yeshiva and was author of Reb Chayim Al Harambam on Maimonides' Mishneh Torah. A great scholar and brilliant talmudist, he evolved new trends in analytical talmudic study. As its undisputed leader, R. Hayyim spent much of his time organizing and helping the community. After the 1895 fire he did much to help rebuild the town. Though stringent in his personal observance, he was often lenient in his decisions for others.

1894 - 1943 HAYYIM SOUTINE (Russia-France)

Artist known for his passionate and often disturbing use of color and form. Soutine was befriended by Modigliani who introduced him to art dealers. At the outbreak of the war, he refused to leave France and died of ulcers brought on by his constantly having to move and remain in hiding.

1802 HAYYIM VOLOZHINER (Belorus, Russia)

Founded the Volozhin Yeshiva. Rav Hayyim introduced in his school the hevruta style of study whereby one learns with a colleague rather then by oneself. Volozhin soon gained a reputation as one of the greatest Jewish centers of learning in the world. With its strict entrance exams and insistance on a high level of consistency, the school soon became the model for other schools of its kind, e.g. Mir (1815), Radun (1869), Telz (1875) and Navaredok (1896).

977 Hebrew

Date of the oldest dated Hebrew manuscript. It is claimed that there are some in existence which date back to the 8th Century.


Was considered the main language of trade between Paris (Aix la Chapelle) and Baghdad or Cairo.


Was established. Tarbut, strongly Zionist in its outlook, served as both a cultural and educational organization with hundreds of schools all over eastern Europe. Classes were taught in Hebrew.


Was organized in the United States by Russian Jews to serve as counselors, interpreters, attorneys, and an employment service, as well as to help them find their relatives.


Was founded in Chicago with Saul Silver as president. Its goal was the training of Orthodox students for the rabbinate.


Was opened with the goal of training rabbis to serve in Reform temples. Founded by Isaac Meir Wise, it is the third oldest modern rabbinical college in the world.


The first veteran's organization in America was founded. It later became the Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America.

1925 April 1, HEBREW UNIVERSITY (Eretz Israel)

Was opened in Jerusalem by Lord Balfour on Mount Scopus. Its first Chancellor was Dr. Judah Magnes. The idea for the university had been proposed as far back as the Kattowitz Conference in 1884 by Herman Schapira. Chaim Weizmann served as chairman of the board. Its library became known as the Jewish National Library and is the largest in the country. After the attack on the Hadassah convoy in 1948, the university was forced to relocate to the Givat Ram campus in Western Jerusalem. After the Six Day War the Hebrew University built a modern campus which was re-established on Mount Scopus in addition to the Givat Ram campus.


Ibrahim Pasha sent in troops to quell a local revolt against his rule. Despite the fact that the Jews had played no part in the revolt (and had been assured of protection), the troops were allowed 6 hours in which to plunder and attack the community and Synagogues. Witnesses reported five girls raped and murdered as well as seven men killed.


William Hechler (1845 -1931) an Anglican minister, had traveled to Eastern Europe two years earlier to investigate anti-Semitism. There he met with Leon Pinsker who introduced him to modern Zionism. In Hechler's pamphlet, he called for the Jews to return to Eretz Israel. Hechler attended the first Zionist congress and formed a strong relationship with Herzl. He made great efforts to encourage close ties between the grand duke of Baden and Herzl and even tried to arrange a meeting between Herzl and the czar. His house was also a museum which included Montefiore's carriage, which he donated to the Eretz Israel museum upon his death.

1817 - 1891 HEINRICH GRAETZ (Germany)

Celebrated historian, his works were based on original sources. Though he was sometimes biased, especially when it came to Eastern-European Jewry, his works on history are nevertheless considered monumental even today.

1797 - 1856 HEINRICH HEINE (Germany)

German lyrical poet and essayist. He converted to Christianity in the hope of obtaining a professorship in German literature, calling it his admission ticket to European culture, but he denounced Eduard Gans as a scoundrel for converting. Heine referred to Judaism as one of the three evil maladies, the other two being poverty and pain. Notwithstanding this, he used his position to defend Jewish rights at times. Although he experienced personal rejection due to his Jewish past and pro-Napoleonism, his works (published in 21 volumes in 1863) achieved universal fame - notably for his wit and sarcasm. His famous Buch der Lieder (1827) included Auf Fluegeln des Gesanges (On Wings of Song), and the Lorelei.


Opened the first Hebrew printing house in Cracow. In 1537 they converted to Christianity and petitioned King Sigismund I to force the Jews to buy their books (which the Jews had boycotted since their conversion). (See 1539)

1859 - 1941 HENRI BERGSON (France)

Mystic philosopher. He disavowed platonic doctrine and championed intuition rather than strict rationalization, as well as the optimistic place of man in nature. His greatest works are "Creative Evolution", "Time and Free Will, and Two Sources of Morality and Religion. He won the Nobel Prize in 1928.


Known as Abbe' Gregoire a catholic priest and revolutionary leader, published , Essai sur la régénération physique et morale des Juifs calling for equal rights for Jews. At the French National assembly he called for a motion on Jewish emancipation. The Jews numbered less than 40,000 out of a population of 26 million.

1857 - 1894 HENRICH HERTZ (Germany)

Pioneer in the science of electricity, demonstrating the presence of electro-magnetic waves of slow frequency. They are popularly known today by his name, "Hertz Waves".

1764 - 1847 HENRIETTA HERZ (Germany)

One of Mendelssohn's brightest followers. Her home became the meeting place (salon) of the most distinguished intellectuals. She was baptized after her mother's death.

1860 December 21, - 1945 HENRIETTA SZOLD (USA)

Founder of Hadassah (the American Women's Zionist Organization), which was named after the Hebrew name of Queen Esther. She served as its president until 1926. In 1893 she worked as the secretary of the Jewish Publication Society and translated a number of publications. She was a devoted Zionist and a member of the Zionist Executive.


Educator and women's activist. In 1865, she helped organize the First Conference of German Women, at which they established the General Association of German Women (Allgemeiner Deutscher Frauenverein). In 1871, she founded The Association for Family and Popular Education (Verein für Familien- und Volkserziehung). The Association established educational facilities for women from preschool up to the Leipzig College for Women.

1366 March 31, HENRY II ( Spain)

Entered Burgos after the city decided to surrender. The king levied a tax of 30,000 doubloons (0.21 troy ounces) on the local Jews. In order to raise this vast sum (over 6,400,000 dollars into days terms), they were forced to sell their property, and even the Torah scroll ornaments. This marked the beginning of a three year struggle between the brothers Henry backed by the English, and Peter backed by the French. The Jews were squeezed financially by both sides bankrupting the Castilian community. Thousands of Jews were killed during the war.

1938 July 30, HENRY FORD

Accepted the Third Reich's medal of the Grand Cross of the German Eagle.

1920 - 1927 HENRY FORD (USA)

Published an assortment of anti-Semitic literature including: The International Jew, Jewish Activities in the United States and Jewish Influence in American Life. As the result of a libel action in 1927 he was forced to make a public retraction.

1920 May 20, HENRY FORD (USA)

Ford's newspaper, Dearborn Independent, with a circulation of seven hundred thousand, "discussed" the Jewish problem.

1927 June 30, HENRY FORD (USA)

The automobile magnet was forced to publicly apologize for libel against the Jews. Aaron Sapiro, a lawyer, had accused Ford and his Dearborn Independent of the libel. Although the case was a personal one, the newspaper's anti-Semitic propaganda figured heavily in the case. Ford was forced to retract some of his accusations and apologize.

1154 - 1184 HENRY II (England)

Henry was first of the Angevin (one of two medieval dynasties originating in France) kings. He both exploited and protected the Jews. During his reign Jews lent large sums of money to various church institutions and financed the building of cathedrals. This did not, however, increase their popularity in church circles.

1218 March 30, HENRY III (England)

The men administering England for the minor king, enforced the anti-Jewish canons of the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) including that Jews wear a distinctive dress to prevent Jews from socializing with Christians - in this case a white linen cloth in the shape of the Tablets of the Law which had to be worn above the heart by all Jews. Many paid for the privilege of not wearing it.

1229 HENRY III (England)

Jews were forced to pay various additional tallages during the 1220's and 30's. In 1229 an additional 8,000 mark tallage was imposed and in 1232 an additional 10,000 marks.

1253 January 31, HENRY III (England)

Ordered Jewish worship in Synagogues be held quietly so that Christians should not have to hear it when passing by. In addition, he forbade Jews from employing Christian nurses or maids, and prevented other Jews from converting to Christianity.

1255 HENRY III (England)

Seeing himself as the "master of the Jews", Henry transferred his rights to the Jews for one year to his brother, Richard, in exchange for five thousand marks.


Was raised by the papal legate and influenced by the Church. While still a minor (until 1232) his affairs were handled by William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, whose policy was favorable to the Jews. Henry III squeezed English Jews financially, leaving them practically penniless. Henry considered Jews his private property to do with as he pleased. Earlier English kings borrowed from Jews and sometimes even repaid those loans. Henry III, however, began the policy of imposing tallage (arbitrary taxation in the Jews) and gradually impoverished them. When the Jews requested permission to leave England, Henry refused so as not to endanger his financial reserves.

1103 January, HENRY IV (Germany)

Concluded a treaty in which the local Lords and Bishops promise for the next four years to protect "...laymen, merchants, women (lest they be raped) and Jews." Although on the surface it seemed to be a positive move, in reality it made the Jews more dependent on the will of the Crown and led them to a position of semi-serfdom.

1095 February 6, HENRY IV (reigned 1056-1106) (Germany)

Issued a charter to the Jews and a decree against forced baptism. He desired to protect the Jews even during the Crusades and granted favorable conditions wherever possible. He also permitted forcibly baptized Jews to return to Judaism - partly because he viewed the Jews as valuable property. The Church criticized his actions.


Following the murder of some local Jews, he tried to bring the culprits to justice.


After an emotional meeting with three old Rabbis, Morgenthau pressured Secretary of State Cordell Hull to help Jews in Vitel, France who possessed Latin American passports and were in danger of deportation to Poland. George Tait, the first secretary in Bern, strongly objected. The State Department succeeded in stalling for 7 weeks by which time the 214 Jews held in Vitel were deported.

1891 May 11, - 1967 HENRY MORGENTHAU JR. (USA)

Agricultural expert and financier. An early friend of President Roosevelt, he joined him in Washington and was named to head the Federal Farm Board. In 1934, he was appointed secretary of the Treasury where he was a strong supporter of tax reforms and responsible for the funding of Roosevelt's New Deal. Morgenthau was an early adherent of America joining in the war against Germany and was instrumental in the setting up of the War Refugee Board. He helped many Jewish organizations and served as the honorary chairman of the United Jewish Appeal.


A friend of Joseph Seligman's, he preached a sermon against anti-Semitism. Despite this appeal to reason, the policy of social discrimination soon became widespread.


Despite the constant suppression of Judaism, many Jews had remained in Constantinople and they became the target of anti-Jewish riots.

1878 March 28, - 1963 HERBERT HENRY LEHMAN (USA)

Politician, banker, philanthropist. Lehman began his career in the War Department under Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who was then assistant secretary of the Navy. He won the Distinguished Service Medal in World War I as an advisor to the Secretary of War. He continued with Roosevelt acting as lieutenant governor of New York in 1928, and then as governor for 5 terms starting in 1932. Lehman headed the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), and later served one term as senator. He was active in the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee and although not a Zionist, supported the establishment of a Jewish state after the Second World War.

1884 HERMAN ARON (1845-1913) (Germany)

Invented the electric meter. While watching his father repair clocks he hit upon the idea of measuring electricity by passing the current through a clock pendulum and noting how fast the hands moved. He also pioneered the wireless telegraph.

1840 - 1898 (17 Iyar 5658) HERMAN ZVI SCHAPIRA (Lithuania-Germany)

Rabbi, mathematician and Zionist leader. The Russian pogroms of 1881 convinced him that a more activist role was necessary and he was among the first members of the Hovevei Zion movement, and, while a professor at Heidelburg, devoted much of his time to the Zionist ideal. He proposed two revolutionary ideas. One, put forth at the first Zionist congress, was to establish a "general Jewish fund", which would buy up large parcels of land in Eretz Israel and lease them out for agricultural purposes, an idea which led to the establishment of the Jewish National Fund in 1901. His second idea, put forth in an article (1882), was the promotion of a plan to found the first Hebrew University in Eretz Israel.

1912 HERMANN COHEN (Germany)

Published The Religion of Reason from the Sources of Judaism. He described Judaism from the perspective of moral and social achievements, and though he disputed the concept of divine revelation, he promoted the need for commandments as a foundation and mold.

1519 February, HERNAN CORTÉS'S

Army lands on the Yucatan Pennisula on the way to conquer what will become Mexico. It includes 100 conversos

1938 November 7, HERSCHEL GRYNSZPAN (Paris, France)

AA seventeen year old German refugee, assassinated Ernst vom Rath, the third secretary to the German embassy. Grynszpan's parents were among the Polish-Jewish refugees forcefully deported to the frontier a month earlier. Many hundreds died along the way. He was held without trial for 20 months until the German conquest of France. Eventually he fell into the hands of the Gestapo and was never heard from again The Nazi's used his action as the excuse for the onset of Kristallnach.

1757 - 1811 HERSHEL OF OSTROPOL (Ukraine)

Jester in the court of Rabbi Baruch of Medzhybizh (see 1753). Rabbi Baruch, who suffered from depression and bouts of rage, brought in Hershel to help calm him. Hershel used his sharp wit usually at the expense of the rich and powerful, - Jews, and gentiles. Some believe that he died in a fatal accident, when in a rage Rabbi Baruch had him tossed off his roof. Many folktales were written about him including Isaac Babel’s “Shabos-Nakhamu” and Eric Kimmel's The Adventures of Hershel of Ostropol.

1854 - 1923 HERTHA AYRTON ( Phoebe Sarah Marks) (England)

Physicist , engineer and inventor. In 1899 she became the first woman to read her own paper before the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE ) and later ( 1904) to do the same before the Royal society. She registered 26 patents and her publications include The Electric Arc, and The Origin and Growth of Ripple Marks.

1902 October 30, HERZL

Published a romantic utopian novel Altneuland (Old-New Land). In it, Herzl portrayed his vision of the Jewish state.

1901 May 17, HERZL (Ottoman Empire)

Met with the Sultan of Turkey to discuss the establishment of a Jewish state and the obtaining of a charter. Herzl failed in both attempts.

1896 February 14, HERZL (Vienna, Austria)

Published Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State). This was basically a revision of his Address to the Rothschilds. In it Herzl envisioned a Jewish state as the only solution to the "Jewish Question". This could be attained in two stages, firstly the establishment of a political base and then mass aliyah (immigration). Many Western European Jews rejected his thesis, but it had the effect of pushing him into the spotlight and thereafter he was regarded the leader of the Zionist movement.

1904 January 25, HERZL MEETS POPE PIUS X

And tried to convince him to support the vision of Zionism without any success. The pope totally rejected the idea that Jerusalem will be in Jewish hands .

1833 October 29, HESSE-CASSEL (Germany)

Was formally made part of the kingdom of Westphalia. All Jews, except for peddlers and petty traders, were granted civic equality. The other German kingdoms took nearly forty years to grant civic equality to their Jews.

1945 March 1, HIGH COMMISSIONER (Eretz Israel)

Complained in a letter to the colonial secretary about the Haganah (during "the Season"). His accusation was that "many of the 830 suspects"detained so far...include numerous people who have no terror connections, but politically speaking are undesirable to the Jewish Agency."

1870 - 1953 HILAIRE BELLOC (England)

French born British poet. Considered the most prolific spokesman for English Catholicism, he wrote 150 books. In his book The Jews (1922) he argued that the existence of the Jewish people "presents a permanent problem of the gravest character," and was a threat to the " white race". He generated the idea that Jews were only interested in money, yet he condemned Nazi anti-Semitism.

672 HILDERUC (Spain)

Governor of Nimes in Spain, he revolted against King Wamba. Many Jews joined him. Duke Paul was sent to put down the rebellion, but converted to Judaism instead. Nevertheless, the rebellion failed and the Jews of Narbonne were expelled, only to return within twenty years.

1520 HILDESHEIM (Germany)

After over 60 years of no Jews being allowed to live there, a residence permit was granted to Grosse Michel, known as "Jud Michel". According to legend, he was the illegitimate son of one of the dukes of Regenstein. Michel was a wealthy financier who lived in a high life style and was protected by Joachim II, elector of Brandenburg. When one of the dukes of Regenstein reneged on a loan, he threatened, then burned down his fields. Numerous accusations were brought against him and his wife over the years, including poisoning wells. He died in 1549 from falling down a flight of stairs in peculiar circumstances.


Was started by Benjamin Frankel. The first Hillel House was opened at the University of Illinois. It provided religious and social functions, as well as counseling for the (often assimilated) Jewish students on campuses.

359 HILLEL II (Eretz Israel)

Issued the Jewish calendar based on the lunar year. Previously, only the Sanhedrin could announce the new month and oncoming festivals. Due to the dispersion, every individual had to be able to determine the exact days for himself.


Met with Ben Hecht the novelist and playwright, and convinced him to join in their efforts in Jewish nationalist affairs. Kook, who went under the name of Peter Bergson (so as not to involve his rabbinical relatives in Israel) was also active in the Irgun Zvai Leumi. His group, the American Friends for a Jewish Palestine was better known as the "Bergson Group", encountered vehement opposition to almost everything they did from both the Jewish establishment (Stephen Wise) and the Zionist movement. Wise, a staunch follower of the President would not tolerate anyone who differed with Roosevelt's actions or lack thereof. The Zionist movement had a tradition of opposing the Revisionist movement and the Irgun. In addition, it was vociferously against any organization which didn't work under its aegis. The organization later evolved into the Committee for a Jewish Army and gained a lot of grass-root support from both Jewish and non-Jewish sources.

1809 August 8, HILLEL RIVLIN (1758–1838) (Eretz Israel)

Arrived at the head of the third group of 70 pupils of the Vilna Gaon. Most, under Hayim b. Tobiah and Israel of Shklov settled in Safed. Others settled in Jerusalem with Rivlin, where they began to revitalize the Ashkenazi community.

1944 May 15, HIMMLER

Offered Rudolf Kasztner to keep 30,000 physically fit Hungarian Jews "on ice" in an Austrian labor camp at a price of $200 per head plus maintenance. The committee could only find around 10,000 dollars. Eichmann took the money and sent them to Auschwitz.

1943 June 11, HIMMLER

Ordered the liquidation of all ghettos in Poland and the Soviet Union. On July 21, liquidation of ghettos began at Nieswiez, in Poland, and soon spread to other ghettos.


As World War II entered its last phase, the Germans decided to hide all evidence of the mass murders. On orders from Himmler, the gas chambers and crematoria were to be blown up or dismantled. Pits were filled with human ash.

1933 January 1, HINDENBURG RESIGNED (Germany)

Hitler was appointed chancellor of the Reich on Jan 30th.

1941 August 13, HINRICH LOHSE, (Riga, Latvia)
Reichskommissar Ostland (Reich Commissar of the Occupied Eastern Territories)

Which included the Baltic States (Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia) and part of White Russia, released secret "provisional regulations" regarding the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question." After the war, Lohse was sentenced to 10 years in prison but released in 1951 due to his "ill health."


Wrote Contra Judaeous, which blamed the harsh conditions of the Jews on their rejection of Jesus.


An important early Christian theologian. He wrote Expository Treatise Against The Jews , which linked the condition of the Jews to their rejection of Jesus. He also identified the anti-Christ as being from the tribe of Dan.

1933 March 5, HITLER (Germany)

Needing support for his minority government, he called for elections. He terrorized all the opposition, including the communists whom he accused of setting a "mysterious" fire in the Reichstag. After the election, Hitler asked his new majority government to grant him dictatorial powers, which they did.

1939 January 30, HITLER (Germany)

Announced to the Reichstag "If international Jewry...should involve the European people in a new war...the result will (be) the destruction of the Jewish race in Europe."

1945 April 30, HITLER (Germany)

Killed himself in the bunker at the Reich Chancellery in Berlin.

1938 March 13, HITLER ENTERED AUSTRIA (the Anschluss)

To the greetings of the Church and Cardinal Innitzer. All Catholic Churches flew the Nazi flag and rang bells in honor of Hitler's troops. Dr. Arthur Seys-Inquert, who later achieved infamy as a mass murderer of Jews, was appointed chancellor. Austria was annexed to Germany and with it the Austrian Jews.


All Catholic churches in Greater Germany hoisted the swastika in celebration.


Was formed by Father Andrej Hlinka, and after his death, headed by Father Josef Tiso. The conservative party was against the idea of a Czechoslovakian republic, and demanded Slovakian independence. It had a decidedly religious anti liberalism, and anti-Semitic bend. After 1935 it became more overtly anti-Semitic, and its youth groups participated in many anti- Jewish riots., including the one Bratislava in April 1936. One of its leaders Karol Sidor a devote Catholic, became the Slovakian ambassador to the Vatican, and called for the expulsion of all Jews. It partnered with the Nazi Germany issuing its own anti-Jewish laws.

1940 July 10, HMT DUNERA embarks to Australia

Carrying 2542 “enemy aliens”. Of the group only 450 were either German Nazis or Italian fascists, the rest were Jewish German/Austrian refugees. As the ship was designed to hold a maximum of 1600 troops, conditions were atrocious as was the attitude of many of the crew to the Jewish passengers who were treated with brutality. Many of them had their belongings stolen or were beaten. Upon reaching Australia 57 days later, an Australian medical officer made his report which lead to a court martial of some officers including the senior commander Lieutenant-Colonel William Scott. A movie was made in 1985, The Dunera Boys which depicted their trials.

1901 - 1977 HO FENG-SHAN (China)

Chinese diplomat who served as the consul general in Vienna, Austria. After its annexation by Germany, Ho issued about 2000 visas for Jews to Shanghai. This despite the explicit orders by the Chinese ambassador in Berlin, Chen Jie who wanted strong German - Chinese relations.

1619 December 13, HOLLAND AND WEST FRIESLAND (The Netherlands)

Under the rule of Prince Maurice of Orange, it was decided that each city could decide for itself whether or not to admit Jews. In consequence, the position of Jews differed greatly between cities In those towns where they were admitted, they would not be required to wear a badge of any sort identifying them as Jews.


And granted equality to its 50,000 Jews.

1940 November 14, HOLY SYNOD (Bulgaria)

Led by Metropolitan Stefan of Sofia, a protest was sent to the parliament deploring its intentions in enacting anti-Jewish measures. Their petition was ignored, and the "Law for the Protection of the Nation", was passed on January 21 1941. It was ratified by King Boris III on January 23 . Metropolitan Stefan continued his protest all throughout the war, and eventual in May 1943,he succeeded in convincing the king to formally stop all deportation orders.

412 HONORIUS (Co-Emperor)

After a number of synagogues were desecrated issued a demand that they be respected, which was in general ignored.

404 April 22, HONORIUS (Co-Emperor)

Decreed that Jews and Samaritans are to be deprived of all military rank nor allowed to bear arms A number of years later believing this didn't go far enough he added also excluded Jews from all civil service ( see 418).

399 HONORIUS FLAVIUS (364-423 C.E.)

Confiscated gold and silver which had been collected by the synagogues to be sent to Jerusalem. He defined Judaism as an unworthy superstition (superstitio indigna). He was greatly influenced by St. Ambrose, and his legislation is considered to be a repercussion of the reign of Julian the Apostate.

1217 November 7, HONORIUS III

Reissued the bull Sicut judaeis… ( As the Jews..) regarding the churches official position against forced baptism, violence or confiscation of property (see 1120).

1930 August 22, HOPE-SIMPSON REPORT (Eretz Israel)

Sir John Hope-Simpson, sent by the British, looked into Arab economic complaints and decided that Palestine had no industrial prospects. He recommended the cessation of all Jewish immigration and a settlement freeze. His report was the basis for the infamous Passfield White Paper.


Were granted a baronetcy by the archduke of Hesse-Darmstadt. The title was later made hereditary by Czar Alexander II. The Guenzburgs were noted for their financial institutions in Russia which helped develop railroads and mines. The family was instrumental in trying to ease the plight of Jews in the Pale.

581 HORMISDAS IV (Persia)

Tyrannized the Jews, forcing many to flee, including the leaders of the academies.

1377 HOST PURCHASING TRIAL (Teruel and Huesca, Spain)

As in the trial of 1367 Jews were again accused of trying to purchase a consecrated host. The person behind it was again the crown prince (Infante) Don Juan (see 1350). A number of Jews were tortured and burned alive in Huesca. Others were taken to Barcelona for trial. His father Peter IV who attended the trial, wrote to him complaining that his actions would drive the Jews out of the realm. He replied that it was his duty to revenge the death of Jesus.

1543 February 19, HOUSE OF CATECHUMENS (Casa dei Catecumeni) (Italy)

Was established by Pope Paul III. The sole purpose of the house, supported by forced Jewish taxation, was to convert Jews. A person sent there was subjected to 40 days of intense "instruction". If he still refused baptism after that time, he was allowed to return to his home - but few did. Around 2440 Jews were converted in Rome alone before it was abolished in 1810. Other houses were set up in various Italian cities.

1233 HOUSE OF CONVERTS (England)

Was established in England as a refuge for baptized Jews. A special tax was imposed on the Jewish community to pay for its establishment and maintenance.


Son-in-law of Richard Wagner, the composer and anti-Semite. He was a proponent of the superiority of the Teutonic race. Chamberlain was the author of "Foundation of the Nineteenth Century" which Julius Streicher, the Nazi founder of Der Stuermer, called "the greatest book since the gospel".

987 HUGH CAPET (France)

Became King of France. The Capetian dynasty lasted for more then 300 years. Capetian rule was weak, especially during the first hundred years. Thus each duchy decided for itself how to treat its Jews. The Church gained enormous influence over local affairs and promoted the idea that the Jews were in league with the Devil - declaring them the "antichrist".

1919 HUGO PREUSS (d. 1925) (Germany)

Professor of law and leader of the Berlin Jewish community, he became Minister of the Interior and drafted the Weimar Constitution.

1860 - 1925 HUGO PREUSS (Germany)

Jurist and liberal politician. He was originally denied a professorship because of his Jewish background, but in spite of this he eventually became Minister of the Interior (see 1921) and headed the committee responsible for drafting the Weimar Constitution.

1941 June 22, HUNGARIAN ARMY

Joined Germany in its surprise attack on the Soviet Union. Hungary joined in the attack. Its regular army was accompanied by 50,000 Jews who were sent as forced labor battalions. Over 40,000 died.

1944 May 14, - July 8, HUNGARIAN JEWS DEPORTED (Hungary)

Mostly to Auschwitz. According to German reports, 437,402 Jews were deported in 55 days on 148 trains.


After the revolution, Jews enjoyed equal rights for two or three years until once again Restrictions were re-imposed until the reforms of 1860.

1942 January, HUNGARIAN TROOPS (Yugoslavia)

Massacred several thousands Jews in the Bacska region of Yugoslavia under their control. Although this was not official policy, the perpetrators were able to flee to Germany.


Following persecutions in the wake of the Black Plague, many Jews fled south to Greece, becoming absorbed into the local Sephardic population. The term "Sephardic Jews" originally refered to those Jews who lived in the Iberian peninsula and followed certain customs. After the expulsion of 1492 the Sephardic community spread throughout the Levant, to Turkey , Greece, and North Africa. Ladino (which is the equivalent of Yiddish) was spoken by some but, was not as widespread as the former among its population.

1783 March 31, HUNGARY

Joseph II allowed Jews to live in the "Royal cities", including Pest. By 1787, 81,000 Jews lived in Hungary.

1846 June 24, HUNGARY

The residence tax was officially abolished. In order to have it cancelled the Jews had to pay a one time fee of 1,200,000 florins.

1849 July 28, HUNGARY

First National Assembly, led by the revolutionary leader Kossuth, granted complete political and civil rights to the Jews in recognition of their loyalty.

1919 January 8, HUNGARY

Bela Kun (Kuhn), a communist dictator, was disposed of after a short period of time with the help of Romania and Admiral Nicholas Horthy. Since Kun was a Jew, all the Jews were accused of being communists. During the riots that followed, known as the "White Terror", well over three thousand Jews were killed.

1919 August 1, HUNGARY

Limited the number of Jews in commerce, law, medicine and banking. The new definition of a Jew was someone who converted after August 1, 1919. An estimated 5,000 Jews converted to Christianity during the weeks before the law went into effect.

1922 September, HUNGARY

College enrollment for Jews was restricted. Hungary was the first nation to openly disregard the Minorities Rights Treaty adopted at the Paris Peace Conference which dealt with the basic civil, political, and religious rights of minorities.


Count Stephan Bethle was elected prime minister. He promised to do away with anti-Semitism and succeeded until the Depression.

1939 May 5, HUNGARY

Two-thirds of Hungary's Jews who became citizens after 1914 were denaturalized. The bill was first presented by ex-Prime Minister Bella Imredy. Jews had to leave all government related positions before the end of the year.

1944 October 15, HUNGARY

With the Soviet Red Army just 100 miles away from Budapest, Horthy began considering signing an armistice with the Allies. The Nazis acted swiftly sending in German Commando Otto Skorzeny, who kidnapped Horthy's son, Nicholas, forcing Horthy to abdicate. A pro-German government was installed with Ferenc Szalasi, the leader of the Arrow Cross party, heading the government. Eichmann returned immediately and continued with the transports. In reaction to Szalasi's policies, Raoul Wallenberg the Swedish diplomat, set up thirty "Swedish houses" with a Swedish flag outside each door, declaring these homes Swedish territory. Almost 15,000 people found refuge in these shelters. Szalasi was later hanged by the Russians.

1942 October, HUNGARY

Germany pressured the government of Miklos Kallay to adopt German actions against Hungarian Jews. Kallay, though not against anti-Jewish legislation, balked at the idea of deportation.

1941 September 1, HUNGARY

Einsatzkommandos, with the help of some Hungarian militia, murdered 11,000 Jews. In August, Hungary had pushed 17,000 stateless Jews across the border to Kamenets-Podolski in the Ukraine. The German army protested that the large number of refugees interfered with the war effort and Hungary took a few thousand back as slave laborers, leaving the rest in the hands of the Germans. There were no survivors.

1526 November 9, HUNGARY AND CROATIA

Following the short occupation by the Ottoman Empire of Buda, the Jews were expelled after being falsely accused by the Hapsburgs of aiding the Turks against Hungary. Many Jews had left Hungary with the departing Turks in hopes of a better life. Jews were not allowed to return for almost 200 years.

1419 - 1436 HUSSITE WARS (Germany)

Occurred after the Church executed John Huss for his outspoken criticisms. The Jews were attacked by the anti-Hussite Catholics, who were urged onward by the Dominican preachers.

1932 June 9, HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION (Naharayim, Eretz Israel)

Built by Pinhas Rutenberg, founder of the Palestine Electric Company. Located near where the Yarmuk and Jordan rivers meet, it regulated the flow from the Sea of Galilee through a dam and a power station. It was destroyed by the Jordanians in 1948.

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