C. 1617 - 1687 ISAAC (BALTAZAR) OROBIO DE CASTRO (Spain- Netherlands)
Professor of philosophy and physician. Denounced to the inquisition by a servant, he spent 3 years under torture without admitting to practicing Judaism. Forced to leave Spain, he became a professor of pharmacy in Toulouse. De Castro settled in Amsterdam in 1662 where he took the name Isaac and became active in the Jewish community. He published a number of books defending Judaism against Christianity, and one against Spinoza.