1943 August 16 - 20, BIALYSTOK UPRISING (Poland)
The second largest ghetto uprising. Although an underground had been formed by Mordechai Tenenbaum-Tamaroff and supported by Ephraim Barash, head of the Judenrat , both were convinced that the ghetto could survive, and that military action was only to be used as a last resort ( see 1941) . The actions were further weakened by the division between those who wanted to fight in the ghetto, and those who wanted to fight in the forests as partisans. The day before Barash had been informed that that the ghetto was to be liquidated, and for whatever reason he didn’t update anyone, showing up to the main square with his suitcase. Himmler, not wishing a repeat of the Warsaw, uprising, appointed Odilo Globocnik as the commander of the operation. He had at his command 3 battalions and other police and military units as well as artillery. When the Germans surrounded the ghetto, some 300-500 fighters with 25 rifles and 100 pistols attacked them. The Germans called in tanks and even aircraft to put down the revolt . The fighting lasted less than a week and the deportations continued unabated. Its leaders Mordecai Tenenbaum-Tamaroff and Daniel Moszkowicz were believed to have committed suicide when their bunker was surrounded. Only 70 of the fighters succeeded in reaching the forests. One of its survivors was Chaika Grossman, who later became a member of the Knesset.