737 - 843 CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
Lasted until the Treaty of Verdun. The Carolingians were the second dynasty of Frankish rulers after the Merovingians. During the height of its rule it encompassed Gaul, and much of Germany and Italy. The Jews were generally well treated, especially under Charlemagne and his grandson, Charles the Bald. Part of this was due to the fact that Christian merchants had difficulties trading due to Arab control of the seas. The Jewish traders known as the “Radhanites” (see 870) provided an alternative to moving goods between the two antagonistic empires . This lasted only until the closure of the China and Caucasus trade routes and the rise of the Italian city state (Venice, Pisa, Genoa and, Amalfi) traders in the 10th century.