Ripe for anti-Semitism after its defeat in World War I, the first translation of the Protocols was published. It was called The Secret of the Elders of Zion and was published by the Verband gegen die Ueberhebung des Judentums (League against Jewish Arrogance). Led by Ludwig Miller (von Hausen) AKA Gottfried zur Beek. They also published the periodical Auf Vorposten which blamed Germany's defeat on the Jews. The German Protocols was reprinted five times in 1920 alone.