1860 - 1911 GUSTAV MAHLER (Bohemia-Austria-USA)
Major modern Jewish composer of nine symphonies. His eighth, "Symphony of a Thousand", requires one thousand performers. Mahler was forced to convert to Christianity as a prerequisite to accepting the post of director of the Vienna Court Opera. His most important song cycles are Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (1884) and Kindertotenlieder (1900-02). During the last 4 years of his life he conducted the Metropolitan Opera and the New York Philharmonic.