1806 - 1860 SAMUEL HOLDHEIM (Poland-Germany)
Radical Reform leader. Holdheim totally divorced Judaism from nationalism and changed the Sabbath to Sunday. In his book Ueber die Autonomie der Rabbinen und das Prinzip der juedischen Ehe he laid down his ideology, which included a separation of religious or ethical Judaism from nationalism. He was thus not against mixed marriages which he considered nationalist in content. He was helped by Abraham Geiger and vigorously opposed by Samson Rafael Hirsch.