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1120 POPE CALIXTUS II (1065-1124)

Prompted by the massacres of first crusade, he issued the protective bull, Constitutio pro Judaeis known as Sicut Judaeis (Latin: "As the Jews") or Sicut Judaeis non debet esse licentia , condemning the persecution of Jews. The term "bull" referred to an official document issued by various Popes and is taken from the Latin bullum, "seal". This specific bull was not "pro Jewish" per se, but rather reflected the Church's official position, as stated by Pope Gregory I (598), which objected to forced conversions or the wanton destruction of synagogues and cemeteries . In addition it states "Too, no Christian ought to presume... to injure their persons, or with violence to take their property. Some newly elected Popes would issue a similar pro Judaeis bull, on occasion after receiving a gift from the Jewish community.rnAlthough the bull was reaffirmed by 20 popes over the next 40 years, it was in reality ineffective and ignored.




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