Surrendered to Alfonso VI of Castile( 1040-1109) , becoming part of Christian Spain. This was the first important conquest of Moslem Spain known as the Reconquista. His chief counselor was Joseph ben Ferrusel, also known as Cidellus (Little Cid). As his physician and advisor, Joseph was instrumental in helping protect those refugees fleeing Almoravide persecutions. The Jews were invited to Toledo and offered full equality . Many Jews (estimates are as high as 40,000) joined his army wearing yellow and black turbans.