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C. 1200 - C. 1300 HASEDEI ASHKENAZ GERMANY

Ethical and mystical movement, thrived in Germany centering mainly around the Kalonymus family; Rabbi Samuel ben Kalonymus he-Hasid (the Pious), his son Rabbi Judah he-Hasid, and the latter's student, Rabbi Eleazar ben Judah of Worms. The movement was influenced by the difficult times which led to mystical hints in its theology and its focus on the importance of martyrdom - dying Al Kiddush Hashem. The movement placed a great emphasis on strict attention to the details of both major and minor religious regulations.




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